Daniel Refai, Richard J. Perrin and Matthew D. Smyth
Bakhtiar Yamini, Daniel Refai, Charles M. Rubin and David M. Frim
Object. The authors report their experience in six patients with pineal tumors and associated hydrocephalus who underwent an endoscopic biopsy procedure and third ventriculocisternostomy (ETVC) in a single sitting.
Methods. The ETVC was successfully performed without complication in all patients; however, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was eventually required in four. Histological diagnosis was successfully established in four patients. The authors also reviewed the literature to assess reports involving ETVC and tumor biopsy sampling in patients with pineal tumors and hydrocephalus. A total of 54 cases, including those in this study, have been reported. Fifteen percent of the patients eventually required placement of a ventricular shunt. The transient complication rate was 15% with no death. A positive tissue diagnosis was established in 89% of the cases overall.
Conclusions. The authors conclude that the endoscopic management of patients with pineal region masses and hydrocephalus may be a preferred initial strategy.
Daniel Refai, James A. Botros, Russell G. Strom, Colin P. Derdeyn, Aseem Sharma and Gregory J. Zipfel
The clinical characteristics and overall outcome in patients with spontaneous isolated convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine the mode of presentation, common origins, radiographic findings, and clinical course in a large case series of such patients.
A retrospective single-center chart review of all patients in whom nontraumatic primary convexity SAH was diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 was performed. Twenty patients were identified and analyzed for presenting symptoms, radiological and laboratory findings, hospital course, and outcome.
There were 15 women and 5 men in our series, and the mean age was 52 years (range 18–86 years). The most common presenting symptom was headache, with 15 patients experiencing it as a chief complaint. Other frequent manifestations included altered mental status (8 patients), focal neurological deficits (7), and seizure (4 patients). An underlying cause of the hemorrhage was identified in 13 cases, whereas the remainder went unresolved. Of the known causes, 5 were due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, 3 were caused by thrombocytopenia or anticoagulation, and the remainder were isolated cases of lupus vasculitis, drug-induced vasculopathy, postpartum cerebral angiopathy, hypertensive microangiopathy, and Call–Fleming syndrome. All patients with unknown disease origins had favorable outcomes, whereas 8 of 13 patients with an identifiable underlying disorder experienced favorable outcomes.
Spontaneous isolated convexity SAH is rarely caused by aneurysm rupture, has a distinct mode of presentation, and generally carries a more favorable prognosis than that of aneurysmal SAH.
Josser E. Delgado Almandoz, Bharathi D. Jagadeesan, Daniel Refai, Christopher J. Moran, DeWitte T. Cross III, Michael R. Chicoine, Keith M. Rich, Michael N. Diringer, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Colin P. Derdeyn and Gregory J. Zipfel
The yield of CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who have a negative initial catheter angiogram is currently not well understood. This study aims to determine the yield of CTA and MRA in a prospective cohort of patients with SAH and a negative initial catheter angiogram.
From January 1, 2005, until September 1, 2010, the authors instituted a prospective protocol in which patients with SAH—as documented by noncontrast CT or CSF xanthochromia and a negative initial catheter angiogram— were evaluated using CTA and MRA to assess for causative cerebral aneurysms. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the noncontrast CT scans to determine the SAH pattern (perimesencephalic or not) and the CT and MR angiograms to assess for causative cerebral aneurysms.
Seventy-seven patients were included, with a mean age of 52.8 years (median 54 years, range 19–88 years). Fifty patients were female (64.9%) and 27 male (35.1%). Forty-three patients had nonperimesencephalic SAH (55.8%), 29 patients had perimesencephalic SAH (37.7%), and 5 patients had CSF xanthochromia (6.5%). Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a causative cerebral aneurysm in 4 patients (5.2% yield), all of whom had nonperimesencephalic SAH (9.3% yield). Mean aneurysm size was 2.6 mm (range 2.1–3.3 mm). Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated only 1 of these aneurysms. No causative cerebral aneurysms were found in patients with perimesencephalic SAH or CSF xanthochromia.
Computed tomography angiography is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of patients with nonperimesencephalic SAH who have a negative initial catheter angiogram, demonstrating a causative cerebral aneurysm in 9.3% of patients.