Andrew D. Firlik, Howard Yonas, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Lawrence R. Wechsler, Charles A. Jungreis, Melanie B. Fukui and Robert L. Williams
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements in acute stroke could be correlated with the subsequent development of cerebral edema and life-threatening brain herniation.
Twenty patients with aggressively managed acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory strokes who underwent xenon-enhanced computerized tomography (Xe-CT) CBF scanning within 6 hours of onset of symptoms were retrospectively reviewed. The relationship among CBF and follow-up CT evidence of edema and clinical evidence of brain herniation during the 36 to 96 hours following stroke onset was analyzed.
Initial CT scans displayed abnormal findings in 11 patients (55%), whereas the Xe-CT CBF scans showed abnormal findings in all patients (100%). The mean CBF in the symptomatic MCA territory was 10.4 ml/100 g/minute in patients who developed severe edema compared with 19 ml/100 g/minute in patients who developed mild edema (p < 0.05). The mean CBF in the symptomatic MCA territory was 8.6 ml/100 g/minute in patients who developed clinical brain herniation compared with 18 ml/100 g/minute in those who did not (p < 0.01). The mean CBF in the symptomatic MCA territory that was 15 ml/100 g/minute or lower was significantly associated with the development of severe edema and herniation (p < 0.05).
Within 6 hours of acute MCA territory stroke, Xe-CT CBF measurements can be used to predict the subsequent development of severe edema and progression to clinical life-threatening brain herniation. Early knowledge of the anatomical and clinical sequelae of stroke in the acute phase may aid in the triage of such patients and alert physicians to the potential need for more aggressive medical or neurosurgical intervention.
Anthony M. Burrows, W. Richard Marsh, Gregory Worrell, David A. Woodrum, Bruce E. Pollock, Krzysztof R. Gorny, Joel P. Felmlee, Robert E. Watson, Timothy J. Kaufmann, Steven Goerss and Jamie J. Van Gompel
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are associated with gelastic seizures and the development of medically refractory epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging–guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRg-LITT) is a minimally invasive ablative treatment that may have applicability for these deep-seated lesions. Here, the authors describe 3 patients with refractory HHs who they treated with MRg-LITT.
An institutional review board–approved prospective database of patients undergoing Visualase MRg-LITT was retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and historical medical data, including seizure and medication histories, previous surgeries, procedural details, and surgical complications, along with radiological interpretation of the HHs, were recorded. The primary outcome was seizure freedom, and secondary outcomes included medication reduction, seizure frequency, operative morbidity, and clinical outcome at the latest follow-up.
All 3 patients in the multi-institutional database had developed gelastic seizures related to HH at the ages of 7, 7, and 9 years. They presented for further treatment at 25, 28, and 48 years of age, after previous treatments with stereotactic radiosurgery in all cases and partial hamartoma resection in one case. One ablation was complicated by a small tract hemorrhage, which was stable on postoperative imaging. One patient developed hyponatremia and experienced weight gain, which were respectively managed with fluid restriction and counseling. At the most recent follow-up at a mean of 21 months (range 1–32 months), one patient was seizure free while another had meaningful seizure reduction. Medication was reduced in one case.
Adults with gelastic seizures despite previous treatments can undergo MRg-LITT with reasonable safety and efficacy. This novel therapy may provide a minimally invasive alternative for primary and recurrent HH as the technique is refined.