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Jonathan D. Breshears, Annette M. Molinaro and Edward F. Chang

OBJECT

The human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) is involved in facial expression, mastication, and swallowing, as well as the dynamic and highly coordinated movements of human speech production. However, vSMC organization remains poorly understood, and previously published population-driven maps of its somatotopy do not accurately reflect the variability across individuals in a quantitative, probabilistic fashion. The goal of this study was to describe the responses to electrical stimulation of the vSMC, generate probabilistic maps of function in the vSMC, and quantify the variability across individuals.

METHODS

Photographic, video, and stereotactic MRI data of intraoperative electrical stimulation of the vSMC were collected for 33 patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Stimulation sites were converted to a 2D coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks. Motor, sensory, and speech stimulation responses were reviewed and classified. Probabilistic maps of stimulation responses were generated, and spatial variance was quantified.

RESULTS

In 33 patients, the authors identified 194 motor, 212 sensory, 61 speech-arrest, and 27 mixed responses. Responses were complex, stereotyped, and mostly nonphysiological movements, involving hand, orofacial, and laryngeal musculature. Within individuals, the presence of oral movement representations varied; however, the dorsal-ventral order was always preserved. The most robust motor responses were jaw (probability 0.85), tongue (0.64), lips (0.58), and throat (0.52). Vocalizations were seen in 6 patients (0.18), more dorsally near lip and dorsal throat areas. Sensory responses were spatially dispersed; however, patients' subjective reports were highly precise in localization within the mouth. The most robust responses included tongue (0.82) and lips (0.42). The probability of speech arrest was 0.85, highest 15–20 mm anterior to the central sulcus and just dorsal to the sylvian fissure, in the anterior precentral gyrus or pars opercularis.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors report probabilistic maps of function in the human vSMC based on intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation. These results define the expected range of mapping outcomes in the vSMC of a single individual and shed light on the functional organization of the vSMC supporting speech motor control and nonspeech functions.

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Matthew B. Potts, Justin S. Smith, Annette M. Molinaro and Mitchel S. Berger

Object

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are rarely diagnosed as an incidental, asymptomatic finding, and it is not known how the early surgical management of these tumors might affect outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with incidental and symptomatic LGGs and determine any prognostic factors associated with those outcomes.

Methods

All patients treated by the lead author for an LGG incidentally discovered between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. “Incidental” was defined as a finding on imaging that was obtained for a reason not attributable to the glioma, such as trauma or headache. Primary outcomes included overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and malignant PFS. Patients with incidental LGGs were compared with a previously reported cohort of patients with symptomatic gliomas.

Results

Thirty-five patients with incidental LGGs were identified. The most common reasons for head imaging were headache not associated with mass effect (31.4%) and trauma (20%). Patients with incidental lesions had significantly lower preoperative tumor volumes than those with symptomatic lesions (20.2 vs 53.9 cm3, p < 0.001), were less likely to have tumors in eloquent locations (14.3% vs 61.9%, p < 0.001), and had a higher prevalence of females (57.1% vs 36%, p = 0.02). In addition, patients with incidental lesions were also more likely to undergo gross-total resection (60% vs 31.5%, p = 0.001) and had improved overall survival on Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.039, Mantel-Cox test). Progression and malignant progression rates did not differ between the 2 groups. Univariate analysis identified pre- and postoperative volumes as well as the use of motor or language mapping as significant prognostic factors for PFS.

Conclusions

In this retrospective cohort of surgically managed LGGs, incidentally discovered lesions were associated with improved patient survival as compared with symptomatic LGGs, with acceptable surgical risks.

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Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Jing Li, Joseph A. Osorio, Darryl Lau, Annette M. Molinaro, Arnau Benet and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECT

Though challenging, maximal safe resection of insular gliomas enhances overall and progression-free survival and deters malignant transformation. Previously published reports have shown that surgery can be performed with low morbidity. The authors previously described a Berger-Sanai zone classification system for insular gliomas. Using a subsequent dataset, they undertook this study to validate this zone classification system for predictability of extent of resection (EOR) in patients with insular gliomas.

METHODS

The study population included adults who had undergone resection of WHO Grade II, III, or IV insular gliomas. In accordance with our prior published report, tumor location was classified according to the Berger-Sanai quadrant-style classification system into Zones I through IV. Interobserver variability was analyzed using a cohort of newly diagnosed insular gliomas and independent classification scores given by 3 neurosurgeons at various career stages. Glioma volumes were analyzed using FLAIR and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

RESULTS

One hundred twenty-nine procedures involving 114 consecutive patients were identified. The study population from the authors’ previously published experience included 115 procedures involving 104 patients. Thus, the total experience included 244 procedures involving 218 patients with insular gliomas treated at the authors’ institution. The most common presenting symptoms were seizure (68.2%) and asymptomatic recurrence (17.8%). WHO Grade II glioma histology was the most common (54.3%), followed by Grades III (34.1%) and IV (11.6%). The median tumor volume was 48.5 cm3. The majority of insular gliomas were located in the anterior portion of the insula with 31.0% in Zone I, 10.9% in Zone IV, and 16.3% in Zones I+IV. The Berger-Sanai zone classification system was highly reliable, with a kappa coefficient of 0.857. The median EOR for all zones was 85%. Comparison of EOR between the current and prior series showed no change and Zone I gliomas continue to have the highest median EOR. Short- and long-term neurological complications remain low, and zone classification correlated with short-term complications, which were highest in Zone I and in Giant insular gliomas.

CONCLUSIONS

The previously proposed Berger-Sanai classification system is highly reliable and predictive of insular glioma EOR and morbidity.

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Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Jing Li, Darryl Lau, Annette M. Molinaro, David W. Perry, Lingzhong Meng and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECT

Awake craniotomy is currently a useful surgical approach to help identify and preserve functional areas during cortical and subcortical tumor resections. Methodologies have evolved over time to maximize patient safety and minimize morbidity using this technique. The goal of this study is to analyze a single surgeon's experience and the evolving methodology of awake language and sensorimotor mapping for glioma surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied patients undergoing awake brain tumor surgery between 1986 and 2014. Operations for the initial 248 patients (1986–1997) were completed at the University of Washington, and the subsequent surgeries in 611 patients (1997–2014) were completed at the University of California, San Francisco. Perioperative risk factors and complications were assessed using the latter 611 cases.

RESULTS

The median patient age was 42 years (range 13–84 years). Sixty percent of patients had Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores of 90–100, and 40% had KPS scores less than 80. Fifty-five percent of patients underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas, 42% for low-grade gliomas, 1% for metastatic lesions, and 2% for other lesions (cortical dysplasia, encephalitis, necrosis, abscess, and hemangioma). The majority of patients were in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class 1 or 2 (mild systemic disease); however, patients with severe systemic disease were not excluded from awake brain tumor surgery and represented 15% of study participants. Laryngeal mask airway was used in 8 patients (1%) and was most commonly used for large vascular tumors with more than 2 cm of mass effect. The most common sedation regimen was propofol plus remifentanil (54%); however, 42% of patients required an adjustment to the initial sedation regimen before skin incision due to patient intolerance. Mannitol was used in 54% of cases. Twelve percent of patients were active smokers at the time of surgery, which did not impact completion of the intraoperative mapping procedure. Stimulation-induced seizures occurred in 3% of patients and were rapidly terminated with ice-cold Ringer's solution. Preoperative seizure history and tumor location were associated with an increased incidence of stimulation-induced seizures. Mapping was aborted in 3 cases (0.5%) due to intraoperative seizures (2 cases) and patient emotional intolerance (1 case). The overall perioperative complication rate was 10%.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the current best practice described here and developed from multiple regimens used over a 27-year period, it is concluded that awake brain tumor surgery can be safely performed with extremely low complication and failure rates regardless of ASA classification; body mass index; smoking status; psychiatric or emotional history; seizure frequency and duration; and tumor site, size, and pathology.

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Darryl Lau, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Susan Chang, Annette M. Molinaro, Michael W. McDermott, Joanna J. Phillips and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECT

There is evidence that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) facilitates greater extent of resection and improves 6-month progression-free survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. But there remains a paucity of studies that have examined whether the intensity of ALA fluorescence correlates with tumor cellularity. Therefore, a Phase II clinical trial was undertaken to examine the correlation of intensity of ALA fluorescence with the degree of tumor cellularity.

METHODS

A single-center, prospective, single-arm, open-label Phase II clinical trial of ALA fluorescence-guided resection of high-grade gliomas (Grade III and IV) was held over a 43-month period (August 2010 to February 2014). ALA was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Intraoperative biopsies from resection cavities were collected. The biopsies were graded on a 4-point scale (0 to 3) based on ALA fluorescence intensity by the surgeon and independently based on tumor cellularity by a neuropathologist. The primary outcome of interest was the correlation of ALA fluorescence intensity to tumor cellularity. The secondary outcome of interest was ALA adverse events. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated.

RESULTS

A total of 211 biopsies from 59 patients were included. Mean age was 53.3 years and 59.5% were male. The majority of biopsies were glioblastoma (GBM) (79.7%). Slightly more than half (52.5%) of all tumors were recurrent. ALA intensity of 3 correlated with presence of tumor 97.4% (PPV) of the time. However, absence of ALA fluorescence (intensity 0) correlated with the absence of tumor only 37.7% (NPV) of the time. For all tumor types, GBM, Grade III gliomas, and recurrent tumors, ALA intensity 3 correlated strongly with cellularity Grade 3; Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were 0.65, 0.66, 0.65, and 0.62, respectively. The specificity and PPV of ALA intensity 3 correlating with cellularity Grade 3 ranged from 95% to 100% and 86% to 100%, respectively. In biopsies without tumor (cellularity Grade 0), 35.4% still demonstrated ALA fluorescence. Of those biopsies, 90.9% contained abnormal brain tissue, characterized by reactive astrocytes, scattered atypical cells, or inflammation, and 8.1% had normal brain. In nonfluorescent (ALA intensity 0) biopsies, 62.3% had tumor cells present. The ALA-associated complication rate among the study cohort was 3.4%.

CONCLUSIONS

The PPV of utilizing the most robust ALA fluorescence intensity (lava-like orange) as a predictor of tumor presence is high. However, the NPV of utilizing the absence of fluorescence as an indicator of no tumor is poor. ALA intensity is a strong predictor for degree of tumor cellularity for the most fluorescent areas but less so for lower ALA intensities. Even in the absence of tumor cells, reactive changes may lead to ALA fluorescence.

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Edward F. Chang, Jonathan D. Breshears, Kunal P. Raygor, Darryl Lau, Annette M. Molinaro and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Functional mapping using direct cortical stimulation is the gold standard for the prevention of postoperative morbidity during resective surgery in dominant-hemisphere perisylvian regions. Its role is necessitated by the significant interindividual variability that has been observed for essential language sites. The aim in this study was to determine the statistical probability distribution of eliciting aphasic errors for any given stereotactically based cortical position in a patient cohort and to quantify the variability at each cortical site.

METHODS

Patients undergoing awake craniotomy for dominant-hemisphere primary brain tumor resection between 1999 and 2014 at the authors' institution were included in this study, which included counting and picture-naming tasks during dense speech mapping via cortical stimulation. Positive and negative stimulation sites were collected using an intraoperative frameless stereotactic neuronavigation system and were converted to Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates. Data were iteratively resampled to create mean and standard deviation probability maps for speech arrest and anomia. Patients were divided into groups with a “classic” or an “atypical” location of speech function, based on the resultant probability maps. Patient and clinical factors were then assessed for their association with an atypical location of speech sites by univariate and multivariate analysis.

RESULTS

Across 102 patients undergoing speech mapping, the overall probabilities of speech arrest and anomia were 0.51 and 0.33, respectively. Speech arrest was most likely to occur with stimulation of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (maximum probability from individual bin = 0.025), and variance was highest in the dorsal premotor cortex and the posterior superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, stimulation within the posterior perisylvian cortex resulted in the maximum mean probability of anomia (maximum probability = 0.012), with large variance in the regions surrounding the posterior superior temporal gyrus, including the posterior middle temporal, angular, and supramarginal gyri. Patients with atypical speech localization were far more likely to have tumors in canonical Broca's or Wernicke's areas (OR 7.21, 95% CI 1.67–31.09, p < 0.01) or to have multilobar tumors (OR 12.58, 95% CI 2.22–71.42, p < 0.01), than were patients with classic speech localization.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides statistical probability distribution maps for aphasic errors during cortical stimulation mapping in a patient cohort. Thus, the authors provide an expected probability of inducing speech arrest and anomia from specific 10-mm2 cortical bins in an individual patient. In addition, they highlight key regions of interindividual mapping variability that should be considered preoperatively. They believe these results will aid surgeons in their preoperative planning of eloquent cortex resection.

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Anthony T. Lee, John F. Burke, Pranathi Chunduru, Annette M. Molinaro, Robert Knowlton and Edward F. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Recent trials for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) highlight the challenges of investigating surgical outcomes using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Although several reviews have examined seizure-freedom outcomes from existing data, there is a need for an overall seizure-freedom rate estimated from level I data as investigators consider other methods besides RCTs to study outcomes related to new surgical interventions.

METHODS

The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the 3 RCTs of TLE in adults and report an overall surgical seizure-freedom rate (Engel class I) composed of level I data. An overall seizure-freedom rate was also collected from level II data (prospective cohort studies) for validation. Eligible studies were identified by filtering a published Cochrane meta-analysis of epilepsy surgery for RCTs and prospective studies, and supplemented by searching indexed terms in MEDLINE (January 1, 2012–April 1, 2018). Retrospective studies were excluded to minimize heterogeneity in patient selection and reporting bias. Data extraction was independently reverified and pooled using a fixed-effects model. The primary outcome was overall seizure freedom following surgery. The historical benchmark was applied in a noninferiority study design to compare its power to a single-study cohort.

RESULTS

The overall rate of seizure freedom from level I data was 72.4% (55/76 patients, 3 RCTs), which was nearly identical to the overall seizure-freedom rate of 71.7% (1325/1849 patients, 18 studies) from prospective cohorts (z = 0.134, p = 0.89; z-test). Seizure-freedom rates from level I and II studies were consistent over the years of publication (R2 < 0.01, p = 0.73). Surgery resulted in markedly improved seizure-free outcomes compared to medical management (RR 10.82, 95% CI 3.93–29.84, p < 0.01; 2 RCTs). Noninferiority study designs in which the historical benchmark was used had significantly higher power at all difference margins compared to using a single cohort alone (p < 0.001, Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test).

CONCLUSIONS

The overall rate of seizure freedom for temporal lobe surgery is approximately 70% for medically refractory epilepsy. The small sample size of the RCT cohort underscores the need to move beyond standard RCTs for epilepsy surgery. This historical seizure-freedom rate may serve as a useful benchmark to guide future study designs for new surgical treatments for refractory TLE.

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Arman Jahangiri, Annette M. Molinaro, Phiroz E. Tarapore, Lewis Blevins Jr., Kurtis I. Auguste, Nalin Gupta, Sandeep Kunwar and Manish K. Aghi

Object

Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are benign sellar lesions most often found in adults, and more infrequently in children. They are generally asymptomatic but sometimes require surgical treatment through a transsphenoidal corridor. The purpose of this study was to compare adult versus pediatric cases of RCC.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed presenting symptoms, MR imaging findings, laboratory study results, and pathological findings in 147 adult and 14 pediatric patients who underwent surgery for treatment of RCCs at the University of Californial at San Francisco between 1996 and 2008.

Results

In both the adult and pediatric groups, most patients were female (78% of adults, 79% of pediatric patients, p = 0.9). Headache was the most common symptom in both groups (reported by 50% of pediatric patients and 33% of adults, p = 0.2). Preoperative hypopituitarism occurred in 41% of adults and 45% of pediatric patients (p = 0.8). Growth delay, a uniquely pediatric finding, was a presenting sign in 29% of pediatric patients. Visual complaints were a presenting symptom in 16% of adult and 7% of pediatric patients (p = 0.4). There was no difference between median cyst size in adults versus pediatric patients (1.2 cm in both, p = 0.7). Temporary or permanent postoperative diabetes insipidus occurred in 12% of adults and 21% of pediatric patients (p = 0.4). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an 8% RCC recurrence rate at 2 years for each group (p = 0.5).

Conclusions

The incidence of RCCs is much lower in the pediatric population; however, symptoms, imaging findings, and outcomes are similar, suggesting that pediatric RCCs arise from growth of remnants of the embryonic Rathke pouch earlier in life than adult RCCs but do not differ in any other way. It is important to consider RCCs in the differential diagnosis when pediatric patients present with visual impairment, unexplained headache, or hypopituitarism including growth delay. Although the average RCC size was similar in our pediatric and adult patient groups, the smaller size of the pituitary gland in pediatric patients suggests an increased relative RCC size.

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Michael C. Oh, Eli T. Sayegh, Michael Safaee, Matthew Z. Sun, Gurvinder Kaur, Joseph M. Kim, Derick Aranda, Annette M. Molinaro, Nalin Gupta and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

Ependymoma is a common CNS tumor in children, with spinal cord ependymomas making up 13.1% of all ependymomas in this age group. The clinical features that affect prognosis in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas are not well understood. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether a tumor location along the spinal cord is prognostically significant in children undergoing surgery for spinal cord ependymomas.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to identify all papers that contained data on patients with spinal cord ependymomas. Only pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who underwent resection with a clearly reported tumor location were included in the analysis. Myxopapillary tumors were excluded from study. Tumor location was subdivided into 6 regions: cervicomedullary, cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracic, thoracolumbar, and conus medullaris. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of tumor location on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results

Fifty-eight patients who underwent resection of spinal cord ependymomas were identified. Ependymomas were located all along the spinal cord but occurred with the highest frequency in the cervical region (29.3%). Progression-free survival was significantly better in patients with tumors arising in the upper portion of the spinal cord (p = 0.031), which remained significant in the multivariate Cox regression analysis (p < 0.05). Moreover, OS was significantly better in patients with upper spinal cord ependymomas than in those harboring ependymomas in the lower spinal cord (p = 0.048).

Conclusions

Although more common in adults, spinal ependymomas can occur anywhere along the spinal cord in the pediatric population; however, tumors occurring in the lower half of the spinal cord carry a worse prognosis with shorter PFS and OS. By comparison, ependymomas in the upper spinal cord recur later and less frequently, with little or no mortality in this patient group.

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Michael C. Oh, Joseph M. Kim, Gurvinder Kaur, Michael Safaee, Matthew Z. Sun, Anahat Singh, Derick Aranda, Annette M. Molinaro and Andrew T. Parsa

Object

Ependymomas are primary central nervous system tumors that occur more frequently in the spines of adults than they do there in children. Previous studies consist mainly of retrospective single-institutional experiences or case studies. In this study, a comprehensive literature review was performed on reported cases of spinal ependymoma treated with resection to determine whether tumor location along the spinal axis conveys important prognostic information.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to identify all papers that included data on patients with spinal ependymoma. Only cases involving adult patients who underwent ependymoma resection with a clearly reported tumor location were included for analysis. Tumor locations were separated into 6 groups: cervicomedullary, cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracic, thoracolumbar, and conus + cauda equina. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of tumor location on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results

A total of 447 patients who underwent resection of spinal ependymomas with clearly indicated location of tumor were identified. The most common locations of spinal ependymomas were the cervical (32.0%) and conus + cauda equina (26.8%) regions. The thoracolumbar and cervicomedullary regions had the fewest tumors (accounting for, respectively, 5.1% and 3.4% of the total number of cases). The conus + cauda equina and thoracolumbar regions had the highest percentage of WHO Grade I tumors, while tumors located above these regions consisted of mostly WHO Grade II tumors. Despite the tendency for benign grades in the lower spinal regions, PFS for patients with spinal ependymomas in the lower 3 regions (thoracic, thoracolumbar, conus + cauda equina) was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) than for those with tumors in the upper regions (cervicomedullary, cervical, cervicothoracic), but the difference in OS did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.131).

Conclusions

Spinal ependymomas along different regions of spinal axis have different characteristics and clinical behaviors. Tumor grade, extent of resection, and PFS varied by tumor location (upper vs lower spinal regions), while OS did not. Recurrence rates were higher for the lower spinal cord tumors, despite a greater prevalence of lower WHO grade lesions, compared with upper spinal cord tumors, suggesting that tumor location along the spinal axis is an important prognostic factor.