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Tsung-Hsi Tu, John E. Ziewacz and Praveen V. Mummaneni

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Robert F. Heary and Praveen V. Mummaneni

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Andrew Kai-Hong Chan, Winward Choy, Catherine A. Miller, Leslie C. Robinson and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is associated with improved patient-reported outcomes in well-selected patients. Recently, some neurosurgeons have aimed to further improve outcomes by utilizing multimodal methods to avoid the use of general anesthesia. Here, the authors report on the use of a novel awake technique for MI-TLIF in two patients. They describe the successful use of liposomal bupivacaine in combination with a spinal anesthetic to allow for operative analgesia.

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Takahito Fujimori, Hai Le, John E. Ziewacz, Dean Chou and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

There are little data on the effects of plated, or plate-only, open-door laminoplasty on cervical range of motion (ROM), neck pain, and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare ROM after a plated laminoplasty in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) versus those with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to correlate ROM with postoperative neck pain and neurological outcomes.

Methods

The authors retrospectively compared patients with a diagnosis of cervical stenosis due to either OPLL or CSM who had been treated with plated laminoplasty in the period from 2007 to 2012 at the University of California, San Francisco. Clinical outcomes were measured using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale and neck visual analog scale (VAS). Radiographic outcomes included assessment of changes in the C2–7 Cobb angle at flexion and extension, ROM at C2–7, and ROM of proximal and distal segments adjacent to the plated lamina.

Results

Sixty patients (40 men and 20 women) with an average age of 63.1 ± 10.9 years were included in the study. Forty-one patients had degenerative CSM and 19 patients had OPLL. The mean follow-up period was 20.9 ± 13.1 months.

The mean mJOA score significantly improved in both the CSM and the OPLL groups (12.8 to 14.5, p < 0.01; and 13.2 to 14.2, respectively; p = 0.04). In the CSM group, the mean VAS neck score significantly improved from 4.2 to 2.6 after surgery (p = 0.01), but this improvement did not reach the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Neither was there significant improvement in the VAS neck score in the OPLL group (3.6 to 3.1, p = 0.17).

In the CSM group, ROM at C2–7 significantly decreased from 32.7° before surgery to 24.4° after surgery (p < 0.01). In the OPLL group, ROM at C2–7 significantly decreased from 34.4° to 20.8° (p < 0.01). In the CSM group, the change in the VAS neck score significantly correlated with the change in the flexion angle (r = − 0.31) and the extension angle (r = − 0.37); however, it did not correlate with the change in ROM at C2–7 (r = − 0.1). In the OPLL group, the change in the VAS neck score did not correlate with the change in the flexion angle (r = 0.03), the extension angle (r = − 0.17), or the ROM at C2–7 (r = − 0.28). The OPLL group had a significantly greater loss of ROM after surgery than did the CSM group (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between the change in ROM and the mJOA score in either group.

Conclusions

Plated laminoplasty in patients with either OPLL or CSM decreases cervical ROM, especially in the extension angle. Among patients who have undergone laminoplasty, those with OPLL lose more ROM than do those with CSM. No correlation was observed between neck pain and ROM in either group. Neither group had a change in neck pain that reached the MCID following laminoplasty. Both groups improved in neurological function and outcomes.

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Rishi Wadhwa, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Darryl Lau, Hai Le, Dean Chou and Sanjay S. Dhall

Object

The most common indications for circumferential cervical decompression and fusion are cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and cervical osteomyelitis (COM). Currently, the informed consent process prior to circumferential cervical fusion surgery is not different for these two groups of patients, as details of their diagnosis-specific risk profiles have not been quantified. The authors compared two patient cohorts with either CSM or COM treated using circumferential fusion. They sought to quantify perioperative morbidity and postoperative mortality in these two groups to assist with a diagnosis-specific informed consent process for future patients undergoing this type of surgery.

Methods

Perioperative and follow-up data from two cohorts of patients who had undergone circumferential cervical decompression and fusion were analyzed. Estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), perioperative complications, hospital readmission, 30-day reoperation rates, change in Nurick grade, and mortality were compared between the two groups.

Results

Twenty-two patients were in the COM cohort, and 24 were in the CSM cohort. Complications, hospital readmission, 30-day reoperation rates, EBL, and mortality were not statistically different, although patients with COM trended higher in each of these categories. There was a significantly greater LOS (p < 0.001) in the COM group and greater improvement in Nurick grade in the CSM group (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

When advising patients undergoing circumferential fusion about perioperative risk factors, it is important for those with COM to know that they are likely to have a higher rate of complications and mortality than those with CSM who are undergoing similar surgery. Furthermore, COM patients have less neurological improvement than CSM patients after surgery. This information may be useful to surgeons and patients in providing appropriate informed consent during preoperative planning.

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Tobias A. Mattei and Daniel R. Fassett

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Praveen V. Mummaneni, Sanjay S. Dhall, Gerald E. Rodts and Regis W. Haid

Object

The treatment of cervical kyphotic deformity is challenging. Few prior reports have examined combined anterior/posterior correction methods, and fusion rates and standardized outcomes are rarely cited in literature examining these techniques. The authors present their midterm results with cervical kyphosis correction.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 30 patients with cervical kyphotic deformity who underwent circumferential spine surgery between 2001 and 2007. The causes of the deformity included chronic fracture in 17 patients, degenerative disease in 10, and tumor in 3. Anterior procedures included discectomies and corpectomies/osteotomies at 1 or more levels with fusion. Posterior operations included decompression and/or osteotomies with lateral mass or pedicle fixation. Preoperative and postoperative Ishihara kyphosis indices, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores, and Nurick grades were analyzed. Arthrodesis was assessed via dynamic radiographs, and CT scans were used to assess fusion in questionable cases.

Results

One patient was lost to follow-up. Two patients died within 1 month of surgery. The follow-up period in the remaining 27 patients ranged from 1 to 6.4 years (mean 2.6 years). Ishihara indices improved from a preoperative mean of −17.7 to a postoperative mean of +11.4. The mean Nurick grades improved from 3.2 preoperatively to 1.3 postoperatively. The mJOA scores improved from a preoperative mean of 10 to 15 postoperatively. All surviving patients who underwent follow-up showed postoperative fusion except 1 patient with renal failure and osteoporosis (95% fusion rate). The overall rate of complications (major and minor) was 33.3%.

Conclusions

In cases of cervical kyphosis, management with decompression, osteotomy, and stabilization from both anterior and posterior approaches can restore cervical lordosis. Furthermore, such surgical techniques can produce measurable improvements in neurological function (as measured with Nurick grades and mJOA scores) and achieve high fusion rates. However, there is a significant rate of complications.

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Luis M. Tumialán, Jeff Pan, Gerald E. Rodts Jr. and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

The goal in this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion ([ACDF]; single- or multilevel procedure) performed using titanium plates and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) spacers filled with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein–2 (rhBMP-2) impregnated in a type I collagen sponge to achieve fusion.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 200 patients who underwent a single- or multilevel ACDF with titanium plate fixation and PEEK spacer filled with a collagen sponge impregnated with low-dose rhBMP-2. Clinical outcomes were assessed using pre- and postoperative Nurick grades and the Odom criteria. Radiographic outcomes were assessed using dynamic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans.

Results

The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 36 months (mean 16.7 months). A single-level ACDF was performed in 96 patients, 2-level ACDF in 62 patients, 3-level ACDF in 36 patients, and 4-level ACDF in 6 patients. Long-term follow-up was available for 193 patients. The Odom outcomes were rated as good to excellent in 165 patients (85%), fair in 24 (12.4%), and poor in 4 (2%). Among patients with myelopathy, Nurick grades improved from a preoperative mean of 1.42 to a postoperative mean of 0.26. All patients (100%) achieved solid radiographic fusion on dynamic radiographs and CT scans. Fourteen patients (7%) in this series experienced clinically significant dysphagia, and 4 (2%) required repeated operation for hematoma or seroma.

Conclusions

An ACDF performed using a PEEK spacer filled with rhBMP-2 leads to good to excellent clinical outcomes and solid fusion, even in multilevel cases and in patients who are smokers. The incidence of symptomatic dysphagia may be decreased with a lower dose of rhBMP-2 that is placed only within the PEEK spacer.

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Beejal Y. Amin, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Tarik Ibrahim, Alex Zouzias and Juan Uribe

The benefits of anterior interbody arthrodesis in deformity surgery are well known and include load sharing and increased fusion rates. A minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach to the anterior lumbar spine is a promising alternative to traditional interbody techniques for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis. The reported advantages of the minimally invasive lateral transpsoas approach include reduced blood loss and shorter length of stay. However, there are several approach-related complications associated with this technique including injury to the nerves within the abdominal wall leading to abdominal wall paresis, bowel injury, and injury to the lumbar plexus.

In this video, we demonstrate the key steps of the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas technique for interbody fusion in the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis.

The video demonstrates patient positioning, surgical opening, passage through the anatomical safe zone, use of multidirectional EMG to navigate away from the lumbar plexus, placement of the expandable retractor, discectomy, endplate preparation, graft insertion, and wound closure. Special emphasis is placed on the approach. We highlight the relevant nerves passing through the abdominal wall with the aid of a microscope.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/XU1OujNF8F8.

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John H. Chi, Sanjay S. Dhall, Adam S. Kanter and Praveen V. Mummaneni

Object

Thoracic disc herniations can be surgically treated with a number of different techniques and approaches. However, surgical outcomes comparing the various techniques are rarely reported in the literature. The authors describe a minimally invasive technique to approach thoracic disc herniations via a transpedicular route with the use of tubular retractors and microscope visualization. This technique provides a safe method to identify the thoracic disc space and perform a decompression with minimal paraspinal soft tissue disruption. The authors compare the results of this approach with clinical results after open transpedicular discectomy.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective cohort study comparing results in 11 patients with symptomatic thoracic disc herniations treated with either open posterolateral (4 patients) or mini-open transpedicular discectomy (7 patients). Hospital stay, blood loss, modified Prolo score, and Frankel score were used as outcome variables.

Results

Patients who underwent mini-open transpedicular discectomy had less blood loss and showed greater improvement in modified Prolo scores (p = 0.024 and p = 0.05, respectively) than those who underwent open transpedicular discectomy at the time of early follow-up within 1 year of surgery. However, at an average of 18 months of follow-up, the Prolo score difference between the 2 surgical groups was not statistically significant. There were no major or minor surgical complications in the patients who received the minimally invasive technique.

Conclusions

The mini-open transpedicular discectomy for thoracic disc herniations results in better modified Prolo scores at early postoperative intervals and less blood loss during surgery than open posterolateral discectomy. The authors' technique is described in detail and an intraoperative video is provided.