Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 90 items for

  • Author or Editor: John R. W. Kestle x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Mandy Binning, Brian Ragel, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Marion L. Walker and John R. W. Kestle

Object

Childhood radiation exposure increases the lifetime risk of cancer from an estimated 0.07 to 0.35%. Neurological evaluation of patients after cranial vault reconstruction for synostosis repair is often complicated by pain medication, sedation, intubation, swelling, and dressings; therefore computed tomography (CT) scans are routinely ordered by some surgeons on the 1st postoperative day. The object of this study was to evaluate the utility of these scans.

Methods

Medical records and CT scans were reviewed for patients at the authors' institution who underwent cranial vault reconstruction to repair synostosis between January 1, 2003, and July 31, 2005.

Results

Of the 111 patients identified in the review, 84 had a CT scan on postoperative Day 1, and seven of these patients underwent shunt insertion for treatment of hydrocephalus. Thirty-three patients underwent bifrontal craniotomies, whereas 51 underwent total vault reconstruction (TVR). Postoperative CT scans revealed minor contusions in three (9%) of 33 patients in the bifrontal craniotomy group and in seven (14%) of 51 patients in the TVR group. No significant sub-dural or epidural hematomas were observed. In the seven patients who required shunt placement, two (29%) had CT evidence of shunt malfunction, leading to shunt revision.

Conclusions

None of the CT findings analyzed in this series was associated with clinical events such as seizures, prolonged intensive care unit stay, or reoperation in patients without shunt placement after cranial reconstructive procedures, although a relatively high incidence of CT evidence of shunt malfunction was found in patients with shunts. These data do not support the routine use of CT scanning after cranial reconstructive procedures unless the patient has received a shunt for hydrocephalus. Patients who experience unexpected intraoperative or postoperative events should be examined using CT.

Restricted access

Mandy J. Binning, Brian T. Ragel, Marion L. Walker and John R. W. Kestle

Full access

John R. W. Kestle

Full access

Mandy J. Binning, James K. Liu, John R. W. Kestle, Douglas L. Brockmeyer and Marion L. Walker

✓Optic pathway gliomas represent approximately 3–5% of childhood intracranial tumors. They usually occur in children during the first decade of life and are seen in 11–30% of patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Although these tumors are typically low-grade gliomas, the clinical course and natural history are highly variable, making treatment paradigms difficult. Overall, however, they are often indolent tumors that can be observed over time for progression without initial treatment, especially in patients with NF1. Chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for progressive tumors, and radiation therapy is reserved for patients with progressive disease who are older than 5–7 years. Surgery is reserved for large tumors causing mass effect or hydrocephalus and tumors confined to the orbit or unilateral optic nerve.

Full access

James K. Liu, Chad D. Cole, John R. W. Kestle, Douglas L. Brockmeyer and Marion L. Walker

The optimal treatment of craniopharyngioma in children remains a challenge. The use of complete excision to minimize recurrence continues to be controversial because of the risk of postoperative morbidity and death. Advances in skull base approaches, modern microsurgical techniques, neuroimaging, and hormone replacement therapy, however, have allowed safe gross- or near-total resection in the majority of cases. Total removal of these tumors, if possible, offers the best chance of cure for the patient. Although craniopharyngiomas are not strictly tumors of skull base origin, their intimate relationship with the neurovascular structures of this region often requires a skull base approach to maximize the surgical corridor and facilitate adequate microsurgical resection. In this review, the authors focus on commonly used skull base approaches for the surgical management of craniopharyngioma. They discuss the relative indications, advantages, disadvantages, and complications associated with each approach. Illustrative cases and intra-operative videos are presented.

Restricted access

Hsin-Hung Chen, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Marion L. Walker and John R. W. Kestle

Object

In late 2008, the authors recognized a new type of ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure specific to the Bio-Glide Snap Shunt ventricular catheters. This prompted a retrospective review of the patient cohort and resulted in a recall by the FDA in the US.

Methods

After the index cases were identified, the FDA was notified by the hospital, leading to a recall of the product. Hospital operative logs were used to identify patients in whom the affected products were used. A letter describing the risk was sent to all patients offering a free screening CT scan to look for disconnection. A call center was established to respond to patient questions, and an informational video was made available on the hospital website. The authors reviewed the records of the index cases and other cases subsequently identified.

Results

Seven index cases and an additional 16 cases of disconnection were identified in the 466 patients in whom a BioGlide Snap Shunt ventricular catheter had been implanted. Mean time to disconnection was 2.7 years (range 4 days–5.8 years). Computed tomography slices in the plane of the catheter helped visualize disconnections. Retrieval was difficult, and in 5 patients the disconnected catheter was not removable. Three catheters were completely within the ventricle. At presentation, 4 children suffered from severe neurological deficits, including one who died as a result of the shunt malfunction.

Conclusions

BioGlide snap-design ventricular catheters are prone to disconnection. Continued vigilance and specific imaging are important. Catheter removal after disconnection may be difficult. Elective removal prior to disconnection in asymptomatic children has not been performed.

Restricted access

Tamara D. Simon, Matthew Hall, J. Michael Dean, John R. W. Kestle and Jay Riva-Cambrin

Object

Significant variation exists in the surgical and medical management of CSF shunt infection. The objectives of this study were to determine CSF shunt reinfection rates following initial CSF shunt infection in a large patient cohort and to determine management, patient, hospital, and surgeon factors associated with CSF shunt reinfection.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study included children who were in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years, and who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement in addition to treatment for initial CSF shunt infection between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. The outcome was CSF shunt reinfection within 6 months. The main predictor variable of interest was surgical approach to treatment of first infection, which was determined for 483 patients. Covariates included patient, hospital, surgeon, and other management factors.

Results

The PHIS database includes 675 children with initial CSF shunt infection. Surgical approach to treatment of the initial CSF shunt infection was determined for 483 children (71.6%). The surgical approach was primarily shunt removal/new shunt placement (in 286 children [59.2%]), but a substantial number underwent externalization (59 children [12.2%]), of whom a subset went on to have the externalized shunt removed and a new shunt placed (17 children [3.5% overall]). Other approaches included nonsurgical management (64 children [13.3%]) and complete shunt removal without shunt replacement (74 children [15.3%]).

The 6-month reinfection rate was 14.8% (100 of 675 patients). The median time from infection to reinfection was 21 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5–58 days). Children with reinfection had less time between shunt placement and initial infection (median 50 vs 79 days, p = 0.06). No differences between those with and without reinfection were seen in patient factors (patient age at either shunt placement or initial infection, sex, race/ethnicity, payer, indication for shunt, number of comorbidities, distal shunt location, and number of shunt revisions at first infection); hospital volume; surgeon volume; or other management factors (for example, duration of intravenous antibiotic use). Nonsurgical management was associated with reinfection, and complete shunt removal was negatively associated with reinfection. However, reinfection rates did not differ between the 2 most common surgical approaches: shunt removal/new shunt placement (44 [15.4%] of 286; 95% CI 11.4%–20.1%) and externalization (total 12 [20.3%] of 59; 95% CI 11.0%–32.8%). Externalization followed by shunt removal/new shunt placement (5 [29.4%] of 17; 95% CI 10.3%–56.0%) and nonsurgical management (15 [23.4%] of 64; 95% CI 13.8%–35.7%) had higher, but nonstatistically significant, reinfection rates. The length of stay was shorter for nonsurgical management.

Conclusions

Surgical approach to treatment of initial CSF shunt infection was not associated with reinfection in this large cohort of patients.

Full access

John R. W. Kestle