Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 66 items for

  • Author or Editor: Gary K. Steinberg x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Ahmet Arac, Vanessa Blanchard, Marco Lee and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Decompressive surgery can be life saving after malignant cerebral infarction. However, severe residual disability occurs in a significant number of surviving patients. Most discussion about the benefits of surgery is based on studies performed in patients who are ≤ 60 years of age. Less is known about the benefits of the procedure in the elderly population. The authors undertook a review of the literature on decompressive craniectomy for malignant cerebral infarction and compared the mortality and outcome data published in patients older and younger than 60 years of age. The authors discuss their analysis, with specific reference to the limitations of the studies analyzed, the outcome measures used, and the special considerations required when discussing stroke recovery in the elderly.

Methods

Studies on decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction reported in the English literature were analyzed. A cutoff point for age of > 60 or ≤ 60 years was set, and the study population was segregated. No studies specifically analyzed patients > 60 years old. A total of 19 studies was identified, 10 of which included patients who were > 60 years of age. A comparison between the 2 age groups was made within the 10 studies and also among all the patients in the 19 studies. Mortality rates and outcome scores were assessed for each study, and a Barthel Index (BI) score of < 60 or a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of > 3 was considered to represent a poor outcome. Rates were compared using the Fisher exact test, and p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Nineteen studies were found, which included 273 patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy for malignant cerebral infarcts. Ten of these studies included 73 patients (26.7%) who were > 60 years of age. The mean follow-up times ranged from 5.75 to 12.3 months in the > 60-years group and 4.2 to 28 months in the ≤ 60-years group. The mortality rate was significantly higher, at 51.3% in the > 60-years group (37 of 72 patients) compared with 20.8% (41 of 197 patients) in the ≤ 60-years group (p < 0.0001). Similarly, patients who survived in the > 60-years group had significantly higher rates of poor outcomes, at 81.8% (27 of 33), compared with 33.1% (47 of 142) in the ≤ 60-year-old group (p < 0.0001). The BI was the most commonly used primary outcome measure (15 out of 19 studies), followed by the mRS score, which was used in 4 studies.

Conclusions

The mortality rate and functional outcome, as measured by the BI and mRS, were significantly worse in patients > 60 years of age following decompressive craniectomy for malignant infarction. Age is an important factor to consider in patient selection for surgery. However, cautious interpretation of the results is required because the outcome scores that were used only measure physical disability, whereas other factors, including psychosocial, financial, and caregiver burden, should be considered in addition to age alone.

Restricted access

Bert A. Coert, Steven D. Chang, Huy M. Do, Michael P. Marks and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Patients with fusiform aneurysms can present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), mass effect, ischemia, or unrelated symptoms. The absence of an aneurysm neck impedes the direct application of a clip and endovascular coil deployment. To evaluate the effects of their treatments, the authors retrospectively analyzed a consecutive series of patients with posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms treated at Stanford University Medical Center between 1991 and 2005.

Methods

Forty-nine patients (mean age 53 years, male/female ratio 1.2:1) treated at the authors' medical center form the basis of the analysis. Twenty-nine patients presented with an SAH. The patients presenting without SAH had cranial nerve dysfunction (five patients), symptoms of mass effect (eight patients), ischemia (six patients), or unrelated symptoms (one patient). The aneurysms were located on the vertebral artery (VA) or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) (21 patients); vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) or basilar artery (BA) (18 patients); and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (10 patients). Pretreatment clinical grades were determined using the Hunt and Hess scale; for patients with un-ruptured aneurysms (Hunt and Hess Grade 0) functional subgrades were added. Outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score during a mean follow-up period of 33 months.

Overall long-term outcome was good (GOS Score 4 or 5) in 59%, poor (GOS Score 2 or 3) in 16%, and fatal (GOS Score 1) in 24% of the patients. In a univariate analysis, poor outcome was predicted by age greater than 55 years, VBJ location, pretreatment Hunt and Hess grade in patients presenting with SAH, and incomplete aneurysm thrombosis after endovascular treatment. In a multivariate analysis, age greater than 55 years was the confounding factor predicting poor outcome. Stratification by aneurysm location removed the effect of age. Of 13 patients with residual aneurysm after treatment, five (38%) subsequently died of SAH (three patients) or progressive mass effect/brainstem ischemia (two patients).

Conclusions

Certain posterior circulation aneurysm locations (PCA, VA–PICA, and BA–VBJ) represent separate disease entities affecting patients at different ages with distinct patterns of presentation, treatment options, and outcomes. Favorable overall long-term outcome can be achieved in 90% of patients with PCA aneurysms, in 60% of those with VA–PICA aneurysms, and in 39% of those with BA–VBJ aneurysms when using endovascular and surgical techniques. The natural history of the disease was poor in patients with incomplete aneurysm thrombosis after treatment.

Restricted access

Gary K. Steinberg, Richard H. Britt, Dieter R. Enzmann, Jonathan L. Finlay and Ann M. Arvin

✓ The common soil fungus, Fusarium, is rarely pathogenic in man but occasionally causes serious disease, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. A case is reported of Fusarium brain abscess and meningitis occurring in a patient with chronic infectious mononucleosis syndrome and immunodeficiency. The patient died despite aspiration of the abscess and treatment with amphotericin B. This case demonstrates the importance of identifying the offending pathological organism through abscess aspiration in immunocompromised patients.

Restricted access

Mark G. Belza, Sarah S. Donaldson, Gary K. Steinberg, Richard S. Cox and Philip H. Cogen

✓ Seventy-seven patients presenting with medulloblastoma between 1958 and 1986 were treated at Stanford University Medical Center and studied retrospectively. Multimodality therapy utilized surgical extirpation followed by megavoltage irradiation. In 15 cases chemotherapy was used as adjunctive treatment. The 10- and 15-year actuarial survival rates were both 41% with an 18-year maximum follow-up period (median 4.75 years). There were no treatment failures after 8 years of tumor-free survival. Gross total removal of tumor was achieved in 22 patients (32%); the surgical mortality rate was 3.9%. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of metastatic disease between shunted and nonshunted patients. The classical form of medulloblastoma was present in 67% of cases while the desmoplastic subtype was found in 16%. Survival rates were best for patients presenting after 1970, for those with desmoplastic tumors, and for patients receiving high-dose irradiation (≥ 5000 cGy) to the posterior fossa. Although early data on freedom from relapse suggested a possible beneficial effect from chemotherapy, long-term follow-up results showed no advantage from this modality of treatment. The patterns of relapse and survival were examined; 64% of relapses occurred within the central nervous system, and Collins' rule was applicable in 83% of cases beyond the period of risk. Although patients treated for recurrent disease could be palliated, none were long-term survivors.

The study data indicate that freedom from relapse beyond 8 years from diagnosis can be considered as a cure in this disease. Long-term follow-up monitoring is essential to determine efficacy of treatment and to assess survival patterns accurately.

Restricted access

Familial trigeminal neuralgia

Case report and review of the literature

Ian G. Fleetwood, A. Micheil Innes, Susan R. Hansen and Gary K. Steinberg

✓ The authors report the case of a 45-year-old woman with medically intractable trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in whom a good clinical response to partial sectioning of the trigeminal nerve was attained. No evidence of vascular compression was found intraoperatively. Several other members of her family, involving three generations, also suffered from TN. The treatment of all affected patients is discussed in the context of a literature review in which the controversies surrounding the origins of the disease and treatment options for patients with the familial variant of TN are addressed.

Full access

Shivanand P. Lad, Raphael Guzman, Michael E. Kelly, Gordon Li, Michael Lim, Karl Lovbald and Gary K. Steinberg

✓Vasospasm following cerebral aneurysm rupture is one of the most devastating sequelae and the most common cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND). Because vasospasm also is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who survive the initial bleeding episode, it is imperative not only to diagnose the condition but also to predict which patients are likely to become symptomatic. The exact pathophysiology of vasospasm is complex and incompletely elucidated. Early recognition of vasospasm is essential because the timely use of several therapeutic interventions can counteract this disease and prevent the occurrence of DIND. However, the prompt implementation of these therapies depends on the ability to predict impending vasospasm or to diagnose it at its early stages.

A number of techniques have been developed during the past several decades to evaluate cerebral perfusion, including positron emission tomography, xenon-enhanced computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, perfusion- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and perfusion computed tomography. In this article, the authors provide a general overview of the currently available perfusion imaging techniques and their applications in treating vasospasm after a patient has suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The use of cerebral perfusion imaging techniques for the early detection of vasospasm is becoming more common and may provide opportunities for early therapeutic intervention to counteract vasospasm in its earliest stages and prevent the occurrence of DINDs.

Restricted access

Venkatesh S. Madhugiri, Mario K. C. Teo, Erick M. Westbroek, Steven D. Chang, Michael P. Marks, Huy M. Do, Richard P. Levy and Gary K. Steinberg

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the basal ganglia and thalamus are particularly difficult lesions to treat, accounting for 3%–13% of all AVMs in surgical series and 23%–44% of malformations in radiosurgery series. The goal of this study was to report the results of multimodal management of basal ganglia and thalamic AVMs and investigate the factors that influence radiographic cure and good clinical outcomes.

METHODS

This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all patients treated at the authors’ institution. Clinical, radiological, follow-up, and outcome data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the influence of various factors on outcome.

RESULTS

The results and data analysis pertaining to 123 patients treated over 32 years are presented. In this cohort, radiographic cure was achieved in 50.9% of the patients. Seventy-five percent of patients had good clinical outcomes (stable or improved performance scores), whereas 25% worsened after treatment. Inclusion of surgery and radiosurgery independently predicted obliteration, whereas nidus diameter and volume predicted clinical outcomes. Nidus volume/diameter and inclusion of surgery predicted the optimal outcome, i.e., good clinical outcomes with lesion obliteration.

CONCLUSIONS

Good outcomes are possible with multimodal treatment in these complex patients. Increasing size and, by extension, higher Spetzler-Martin grade are associated with worse outcomes. Inclusion of multiple modalities of treatment as indicated could improve the chances of radiographic cure and good outcomes.

Full access

Marco Lee, Greg Zaharchuk, Raphael Guzman, Achal Achrol, Teresa Bell-Stephens and Gary K. Steinberg

Moyamoya disease is characterized by a chronic stenoocclusive vasculopathy affecting the terminal internal carotid arteries. The clinical presentation and outcome of moyamoya disease remain varied based on angiographic studies alone, and much work has been done to study cerebral hemodynamics in this group of patients. The ability to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) accurately continues to improve with time, and with it a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with moyamoya disease. The main imaging techniques used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics include PET, SPECT, xenon-enhanced CT, dynamic perfusion CT, MR imaging with dynamic susceptibility contrast and with arterial spin labeling, and Doppler ultrasonography. More invasive techniques include intraoperative ultrasonography. The authors review the current knowledge of CBF in this group of patients and the role each main quantitative method has played in evaluating them, both in the disease state and after surgical intervention.

Restricted access

Paritosh Pandey, Michael P. Marks, Ciara D. Harraher, Erick M. Westbroek, Steven D. Chang, Huy M. Do, Richard P. Levy, Robert L. Dodd and Gary K. Steinberg

Object

Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are diverse because of their variations in size (S), location in eloquent cortex (E), and presence of central venous drainage (V). Because they may have implications for management and outcome, the authors evaluated these variations in the present study.

Methods

Between 1984 and 2010, 100 patients with Grade III AVMs were treated. The AVMs were categorized by Spetzler-Martin characteristics as follows: Type 1 = S1E1V1, Type 2 = S2E1V0, Type 3 = S2E0V1, and Type 4 = S3E0V0. The occurrence of a new neurological deficit, functional status (based on modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) at discharge and follow-up, and radiological obliteration were correlated with demographic and morphological characteristics.

Results

One hundred patients (49 female and 51 male; age range 5–68 years, mean 35.8 years) were evaluated. The size of AVMs was less than 3 cm in 28 patients, 3–6 cm in 71, and greater than 6 cm in 1; 86 AVMs were located in eloquent cortex and 38 had central drainage. The AVMs were Type 1 in 28 cases, Type 2 in 60, Type 3 in 11, and Type 4 in 1. The authors performed embolization in 77 patients (175 procedures), surgery in 64 patients (74 surgeries), and radiosurgery in 49 patients (44 primary and 5 postoperative).

The mortality rate following the management of these AVMs was 1%. Fourteen patients (14%) had new neurological deficits, with 5 (5%) being disabling (mRS score > 2) and 9 (9%) being nondisabling (mRS score ≤ 2) events. Patients with Type 1 AVMs (small size) had the best outcome, with 1 (3.6%) in 28 having a new neurological deficit, compared with 72 patients with larger AVMs, of whom 13 (18.1%) had a new neurological deficit (p < 0.002). Older age (> 40 years), malformation size > 3 cm, and nonhemorrhagic presentation predicted the occurrence of new deficits (p < 0.002). Sex, eloquent cortex, and venous drainage did not confer any benefit.

In 89 cases follow-up was adequate for data to be included in the obliteration analysis. The AVM was obliterated in 78 patients (87.6%), 69 of them (88.5%) demonstrated on angiography and 9 on MRI /MR angiography. There was no difference between obliteration rates between different types of AVMs, size, eloquence, and drainage. Age, sex, and clinical presentation also did not predict obliteration.

Conclusions

Multimodality management of Grade III AVMs results in a high rate of obliteration, which was not influenced by size, venous drainage, or eloquent location. However, the development of new neurological deficits did correlate with size, whereas eloquence and venous drainage did not affect the neurological complication rate. The authors propose subclassifying the Grade III AVMs according to their size (< 3 and ≥ 3 cm) to account for treatment risk.