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Daniel H. Kim, Judith A. Murovic, Robert L. Tiel, Gregory Moes and David G. Kline

Object. This is a retrospective review of 146 surgically treated benign and malignant peripheral non—neural sheath tumors (PNNSTs). Tumor classifications with patient numbers, locations of benign PNNSTs, and surgical techniques and adjunctive treatments are presented. The results of a literature review regarding tumor frequencies are presented.

Methods. One hundred forty-six patients with 111 benign and 35 malignant PNNSTs were treated between 1969 and 1999 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The benign tumors included 33 ganglion cysts, 16 cases of localized hypertrophic neuropathy, 12 lipomas, 12 tumors of vascular origin, and 11 desmoid tumors. There were four each of lipofibrohamartomas, myositis ossificans, osteochondromas, and ganglioneuromas; two each of meningiomas, cystic hygromas, myoblastoma or granular cell tumors, triton tumors, and lymphangiomas; and one epidermoid cyst. The locations of benign PNNSTs were the following: 33 in the brachial plexus region, 39 in an upper extremity, one in the pelvic plexus, and 38 in a lower extremity.

The malignant PNNSTs included 35 surgically treated carcinomas, 15 of which originated in the breast and nine in the lung. There were two melanomas metastatic to nerve and one tumor each that had metastasized from the bladder, rectum, skin, head and neck, and thyroid, and from a primary Ewing sarcoma. There was a single lymphoma that had metastasized to the radial nerve and one chordoma and one osteosarcoma, each of which had metastasized to the brachial plexus.

Conclusions. There were more benign PNNSTs than malignant ones. Benign tumors were relatively equally distributed in the brachial plexus region and upper and lower extremities, with the exception of the pelvic plexus, which had only one tumor.

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John Gachiani, Daniel H. Kim, Adriane Nelson and David Kline

Object

The authors present the results of a retrospective review of 37 surgically treated metastases to nerve (malignant peripheral non–neural sheath nerve tumors). Tumor frequencies, presentations, management, and prognosis are discussed.

Methods

Thirty-seven patients who were treated for metastases to nerve between 1969 and 2006 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center were identified in a review of patient records. Notes regarding patient history and physical examination findings were reviewed to provide information on presenting symptoms and signs. Imaging and histopathological examination results were also reviewed. Cases were analyzed depending on the primary tumor and the location of metastasis.

Results

There included 37 surgically treated lesions, 16 of which originated in the breast and 10 of which originated in the lung. In two cases melanomas had metastasized to nerve, and one tumor each had metastasized from the bladder, rectum, skin, head and neck, and thyroid, and from a primary Ewing sarcoma. There was a single lymphoma that had metastasized to the radial nerve and one chordoma and one osteosarcoma, each of which had metastasized to the brachial plexus.

Conclusions

The nervous system is involved in numerous ways by oncological process. Direct involvement of the peripheral nervous system occurs mostly from direct extension, although it occasionally occurs because of distant spread from the primary tumor to nerve. Surgical excision of the metastatic lesion with margins has been useful mostly in the control of pain. Nevertheless, patients eventually succumb to their primary malignancy.

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Max C. Lee, Michael Y. Wang, Richard G. Fessler, Jason Liauw and Daniel H. Kim

Object

Placement of instrumentation in the setting of a spinal infection has always been controversial. Although the use of allograft and autograft bone has been accepted as safe, demonstrations of the effectiveness of titanium have been speculative, based on several retrospective reviews. The authors' goal in this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of instrumentation in the setting of a spinal infection by retrospectively reviewing their cases over the last 4 years and searching the literature regarding instrumentation in patients with pyogenic spinal infections.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of their cumulative data on spinal infections. Diagnosis was based on subjective and objective clinical findings, along with radiographic and laboratory evaluation of infection and mechanical stability. Patients with medically managed disease and those who did not receive instrumentation were eliminated from this review.

Of 105 patients with spinal infections who were admitted to the neurosurgical service between January 2000 and June 2004, 30 underwent surgical debridement necessitating spinal instrumentation. There were 17 women and 13 men in this group ranging from 28 to 86 years of age. Follow-up duration ranged from 3 to 54 months. There was one death, which occurred 3 months postsurgery. In three patients a deep wound infection developed, necessitating intervention, and two patients experienced a graft expulsion. Twenty-nine patients went on to demonstrate adequate fusion based on follow-up neuroimaging studies.

Conclusions

The goal of neurosurgical intervention in the setting of spinal infection is to obtain an organism culture and the debridement of infection while maintaining neurological and mechanical stability. The authors demonstrate the effectiveness of radical debridement of infected bone and placement of instrumentation in patients with spinal infections.

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Kriangsak Saetia, Dosang Cho, Sangkook Lee, Daniel H. Kim and Sang Don Kim

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is most commonly found in men, the elderly, and Asian patients. There are many diseases associated with OPLL, such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other spondyloarthropathies. Several factors have been reported to be associated with OPLL formation and progression, including genetic, hormonal, environmental, and lifestyle factors. However, the pathogenesis of OPLL is still unclear. Most symptomatic patients with OPLL present with neurological deficits such as myelopathy, radiculopathy, and/or bowel and bladder symptoms. There are some reports of asymptomatic OPLL. Both static and dynamic factors are related to the development of myelopathy. Plain radiography, CT, and MR imaging are used to evaluate OPLL extension and the area of spinal cord compression. Management of OPLL continues to be controversial. Each surgical technique has some advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of operation should be made case by case, depending on the patient's condition, level of pathology, type of OPLL, and the surgeon's experience. In this paper, the authors attempt to review the incidence, pathology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical presentation, classification, radiological evaluation, and management of OPLL.

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Ung-Kyu Chang, Daniel H. Kim, Max C. Lee, Rafer Willenberg, Se-Hoon Kim and Jesse Lim

Object

Range of motion (ROM) changes were evaluated at the surgically treated and adjacent segments in cadaveric specimens treated with two different cervical artificial discs compared with those measured in intact spine and fusion models.

Methods

Eighteen cadaveric human cervical spines were tested in the intact state for the different modes of motion (extension, flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation) up to 2 Nm. Three groups of specimens (fitted with either the ProDisc-C or Prestige II cervical artificial disc or submitted to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion [ACDF]) were tested after implantation at C6–7 level. The ROM values were measured at treated and adjacent segments, and these values were then compared with those measured in the intact spine.

Results

At the surgically treated segment, the ROM increased after arthroplasty compared with the intact spine in extension (54% in the ProDisc-C group, 47% in the Prestige group) and in flexion (27% in the ProDisc-C group, 10% in the Prestige group). In bending and rotation, the postarthroplasty ROMs were greater than those of the intact spine (10% in the ProDisc-C group and 55% in the Prestige group in bending, 17% in the ProDisc-C group and 50% in the Prestige group in rotation). At the adjacent levels the ROMs decreased in all specimens treated with either artificial disc in all modes of motion (< 10%) except for extension at the inferior the level (29% decrease for ProDisc-C implant, 12% decrease for Prestige disc). The ROM for all motion modes in the ACDF-treated spine decreased at the treated level (range 18–44%) but increased at the adjacent levels (range 3–20%).

Conclusions

Both ProDisc-C and Prestige artificial discs were associated with increased ROM at the surgically treated segment compared with the intact spine with or without significance for all modes of testing. In addition, adjacent-level ROM decreased in all modes of motion except extension in specimens fitted with both artificial discs.

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Ung-Kyu Chang, Daniel H. Kim, Max C. Lee, Rafer Willenberg, Se-Hoon Kim and Jesse Lim

Object

The authors of previous in vitro investigations have reported an increase in adjacent-level intradiscal pressures (IDPs) and facet joint stresses following cervical spine fusion. This study was performed to compare adjacent-level IDPs and facet force following arthroplasty with the fusion model.

Methods

Eighteen human cadaveric cervical spines were tested in the intact state for different modes of motion (extension, flexion, bending, and rotation) up to 2 Nm. The specimens were then divided into three groups: those involving the ProDisc-C cervical artificial disc, Prestige cervical artificial disc, and cervical fusion. They were load tested after application of instrumentation or surgery at the C6–7 level. During the test, IDPs and facet forces were measured at adjacent levels.

Results

In arthroplasty-treated specimens, the IDP showed little difference from that of the intact spine at both proximal and distal levels. In fusion-treated specimens, the IDP increased at the posterior anulus fibrosus on extension and at the anterior anulus fibrosus on flexion at the proximal level. At the distal level, the IDP change was not significant. The facet force changes were minimal in flexion, bending, and rotation modes in both arthroplasty- and fusion-treated spines. Significant changes were noted in the extension mode only. In extension, arthroplasty models exhibited significant increases of facet force at the treated level. In the fusion model the facet forces decreased at the treated segment and increased at the adjacent segment.

Conclusions

The two artificial discs of the semiconstrained systems maintain adjacent-level IDPs near the preoperative values in all modes of motion, but with respect to facet force pressure tended to increase after arthroplasty.

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Sung-Min Kim, T. Jesse Lim, Josemaria Paterno, Tae-Jin Hwang, Kun-Woo Lee, Raju S. V. Balabhadra and Daniel H. Kim

Object. The authors compared the biomechanical stability of two anterior fixation procedures—anterior C1–2 Harms plate/screw (AHPS) fixation and the anterior C1–2 transarticular screw (ATS) fixation; and two posterior fixation procedures—the posterior C-1 lateral mass combined with C-2 pedicle screw/rod (PLM/APSR) fixation and the posterior C1–2 transarticular screw (PTS) fixation after destabilization.

Methods. Sixteen human cervical spine specimens (Oc—C3) were tested in three-dimensional flexion—extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending motions after destabilization by using an atlantoaxial C1–2 instability model. In each loading mode, moments were applied to a maximum of 1.5 Nm, and the range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and elastic zone (EZ) were determined and values compared using the intact spine, the destabilized spine, and the postfixation spine.

The AHPS method produced inferior biomechanical results in flexion—extension and lateral bending modes compared with the intact spine. The lateral bending NZ and ROM for this method differed significantly from the other three fixation techniques (p < 0.05), although statistically significant differences were not obtained for all other values of ROM and NZ for the other three procedures. The remaining three methods restored biomechanical stability and improved it over that of the intact spine.

Conclusions. The PLM/APSR fixation method was found to have the highest biomechanical stiffness followed by PTS, ATS, and AHPS fixation. The PLM/APSR fixation and AATS methods can be considered good procedures for stabilizing the atlantoaxial joints, although specific fixation methods are determined by the proper clinical and radiological characteristics in each patient.

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Alice Cherqui, Daniel H. Kim, Se-Hoon Kim, Hyung-Ki Park and David G. Kline

Object

The goal of this study was to analyze the results of surgical treatment of paraspinal nerve sheath tumors (NSTs) and review the surgical approaches to paraspinal NSTs.

Methods

A retrospective review of the cases of paraspinal NSTs treated surgically by two senior authors during the period between 1970 and 2006 was undertaken. Surgical approaches that allow minimal disruption of normal anatomy and are aimed at complete resection of paraspinal lesions and preservation of spinal stability are reviewed according to the spinal level.

Results

Eighty-eight paraspinal NSTs were treated surgically during the period: 56 schwannomas, seven solitary neurofibromas, 21 neurofibromas associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), and four malignant peripheral NSTs. Schwannomas tended to occur in the cervical and thoracic areas. Neurofibromas were usually associated with NF1 and tended to occur in the cervical area. Pain (79 patients, 90%) and paresthesia (81 patients, 92%) were the predominant clinical presenting symptoms; others included weakness (28 patients) and myelopathy (12 patients). Total resection of the tumor was achieved in 50 patients (89.3%) with schwannomas and 22 patients (78.6%) with neurofibromas. There was a large reduction of pain in 70 (88.6%) of 79 patients who had preoperative pain, and weakness improved in 18 (64.3%) of 28. Postoperative transient weakness occurred in 12 (42.9% ) of these patients, but in 85% of this group, the symptom improved over a 12-month period. Myelopathy was reduced in eight (66.7%) of 12 patients. The average follow-up period was 18 months.

Conclusions

Paraspinal NSTs present unique surgical challenges given their anatomical relationships to the spine, spinal cord, nerve roots, and major vasculature. The surgical technique should take into account the location of the lesion and its relationship to paraspinal anatomy, the extent of resection, sparing of normal anatomy, and spinal instability.

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Daniel H. Kim, Sean E. Connolly, David G. Kline, Rand M. Voorhies, Andrea Smith, Mary Powell, Tracy Yoes and Joanne K. Daniloff

✓ This study evaluated the ability of Schwann cell transplants to enhance the recovery of function in injured nerves and compared the results to those produced by sural nerve grafts. Schwann cells were isolated from sciatic nerves, prelabeled with gold fluorescent dye admixed with collagen gel, and placed in resorbable collagen tubes. Twenty-four adult rats underwent severing of the bilateral sciatic nerves, with a 10-mm gap between the nerve stumps. The rats were then divided into two groups. A collagen tube with implanted Schwann cells was implanted in one leg of the Group I rats, and the contralateral leg served as a control and was repaired with a collagen tube filled with collagen gel only. The Group II animals received conduits packed with labeled Schwann cells in one leg to bridge the 10-mm gap; the contralateral leg was repaired with an autogenous sural nerve graft. Recovery of function was assessed physiologically and morphologically.

Nerve conduction velocity and nerve action potential amplitude measurements showed that the Schwann cell implants induced return of function comparable to that of the sural nerve grafts. Morphological assessments of myelination suggested a tendency toward greater numbers of myelinated axons in Schwann cell implants than in sural nerve grafts. Anatomical analyses of gold fluorescent dye showed both high viability of prelabeled Schwann cells at 120 days after transplantation and migration as far as 30 mm away from the implant site.

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Ki-Uk Kim, Daniel A. Vallera, Hsaio-Tzu Ni, Kwan H. Cho, Walter C. Low and Walter A. Hall

Object

The prognosis for patients with primary malignant brain tumors is poor despite aggressive treatment, and tumor recurrence is common regardless of the chosen therapy. Although multimodal treatment does not provide a cure, it is necessary to determine which treatment modalities have the greatest cytotoxic effect and can potentially prolong survival. Immunotoxin therapy is a novel approach for the treatment of tumors, and it has been successfully used in the central nervous system. Because the interleukin (IL)–4 receptor is commonly expressed on brain tumor cells, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of using a modified diphtheria toxin–murine IL-4 (DT390-mIL4) immunoconjugate for the treatment of murine brain tumor cell lines and to determine whether the addition of radiation therapy could potentiate the effect of this agent.

Methods

Spontaneous murine glioblastoma (SMA-560) and two neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a and NB41A3) cell lines were treated using DT390-mIL4 at different concentrations, and the anti–mouse IL-4 monoclonal antibody (11B11) was used for blocking its cytotoxicity. Other SMA-560 and Neuro-2a cell lines were treated using 500 cGy of radiation 3 hours before DT390-mIL4 treatment. Cytotoxity was evaluated using a trypan blue viability assay.

The immunoconjugate exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.56 × 10−9 M in SMA-560, 1.28 × 10−9 M in Neuro-2a, and 0.95 × 10−10 M in NB41A3 cell lines. The cytotoxicity of DT390-mIL4 was specifically blocked by an excess of 11B11. Cytotoxicity was additive when the DT390-mIL4 at 10−9 M immunoconjugate administration was followed by radiation therapy.

Conclusions

These results indicate that the IL-4 receptor can be a target for diphtheria toxin fusion proteins and that radiation can potentiate the effects of DT390-mIL4. The development of multimodal approaches to treat malignant brain tumors with agents that have different mechanisms of action may be beneficial.