Vladislav Pavlov, Pascale Varlet, Fabrice Chretien, Geneviève Nguyen and Johan Pallud
Shunsuke Kakino, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Yoshitaka Kubo, Hiroshi Kashimura, Hiromu Konno, Atsushi Sugawara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Makoto Sasaki and Akira Ogawa
Although angioplasty and stent placement for vertebral artery (VA)–origin stenosis have been performed using endovascular techniques, a high likelihood of restenosis has been observed in the long term. Therefore, the authors assessed the long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes in patients after VA–subclavian artery (SA) transposition.
Thirty-six patients (31 men, 5 women; mean age 64.3 years, range 46–76 years) underwent clinical evaluation (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and cervical angiographic evaluation preoperatively and within 1 month of and 6 months after VA-SA transposition undertaken to treat symptomatic stenosis of VA origin.
Postoperative neurological deficits due to intraoperative brain ischemia did not occur, and MR imaging demonstrated no new postoperative ischemic lesions in any of the patients. One patient died of acute myocardial infarction 2 months after surgery and another developed a left thalamic hemorrhage (mRS score of 5) at 42 months postsurgery. None of the remaining 34 patients experienced further ischemic events, and the mRS score in all of these patients remained unchanged during a mean follow-up period of 54 months. The degree of VA-origin stenosis (preoperative mean 84%) was reduced to ≤ 30% after surgery (mean 2%). Long-term follow-up angiography in 29 patients (81%) revealed the absence of restenosis, defined as > 50% luminal narrowing, in all of them.
The clinical and angiographic long-term outcomes demonstrated here suggest that VA-SA transposition will be useful in patients with symptomatic stenosis of VA origin.
Taro Suzuki, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Ryonoshin Hirooka, Makoto Sasaki, Masakazu Kobayashi, Daiya Ishigaki, Shunro Fujiwara, Kenji Yoshida, Yasunari Otawara and Akira Ogawa
Preoperative impairment of cerebral hemodynamics predicts the development of new cerebral ischemic events after carotid endarterectomy (CEA), including neurological deficits and cerebral ischemic lesions on diffusion weighted MR imaging. Furthermore, the signal intensity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on single-slab 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) can assess hemodynamic impairment in the cerebral hemisphere. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, on preoperative MR angiography, the signal intensity of the MCA can be used to identify patients at risk for development of cerebral ischemic events after CEA.
The signal intensity of the MCA ipsilateral to CEA on preoperative MR angiography was graded according to the ability to visualize the MCA in 106 patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70%). Diffusion weighted MR imaging was performed within 3 days of and 24 hours after surgery. The presence or absence of new postoperative neurological deficits was also evaluated.
Cerebral ischemic events after CEA were observed in 16 patients. Reduced signal intensity of the MCA on preoperative MR angiography was the only significant independent predictor of postoperative cerebral ischemic events. When the reduced MCA signal intensity on preoperative MR angiography was defined as an impairment in cerebral hemodynamics, MR angiography grading resulted in an 88% sensitivity and 63% specificity, with a 30% positive- and a 97% negative-predictive value for the development of postoperative cerebral ischemic events.
Signal intensity of the MCA on preoperative single-slab 3D time-of-flight MR angiography is useful for identifying patients at risk for cerebral ischemic events after CEA.
Kuniaki Ogasawara, Nobuyuki Sakai, Terumasa Kuroiwa, Kohkichi Hosoda, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda, Chiaki Sakai, Izumi Nagata, Akira Ogawa and Japanese Society for Treatment at Neck in Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group
Intracranial hemorrhage associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but potentially devastating complication. In the present study the authors evaluated 4494 patients with carotid artery stenosis who had undergone CEA or CAS to clarify the clinicopathological features and outcomes of those with CHS and associated intracranial hemorrhage.
Patients with postoperative CHS were retrospectively selected, and clinicopathological features and outcomes were studied.
Sixty-one patients with CHS (1.4%) were identified, and intracranial hemorrhage developed in 27 of them (0.6%). The onset of CHS peaked on the 6th postoperative day in those who had undergone CEA and within 12 hours in those who had undergone CAS. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor postoperative control of blood pressure was significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA (p = 0.0164). Note, however, that none of the tested variables were significantly associated with the development of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CAS. Mortality (p = 0.0010) and morbidity (p = 0.0172) rates were significantly higher in patients with intracranial hemorrhage than in those without.
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after CEA and CAS occurs with delayed classic and acute presentations, respectively. Although strict control of postoperative blood pressure prevents intracranial hemorrhage in patients with CHS after CEA, there appears to be no relationship between blood pressure control and intracranial hemorrhage in those with CHS after CAS. Finally, the prognosis of CHS in patients with associated intracerebral hemorrhage is poor.