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Ashish H. Shah, Neal Patel, Daniel M. S. Raper, Amade Bregy, Ramsey Ashour, Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Mohammad Ali Aziz-Sultan, Jacques J. Morcos, Roberto C. Heros and Ricardo J. Komotar

Object

As endovascular techniques have become more advanced, preoperative embolization has become an increasingly used intervention in the management of meningiomas. To date, however, no consensus has been reached on the use of this technique. To clarify the role of preoperative embolization in the management of meningiomas, the authors conducted a systematic review of case reports, case series, and prospective studies to increase the current understanding of the management options for these common lesions and complications associated with preoperative embolization.

Methods

A PubMed search was performed to include all relevant studies in which the management of intracranial meningiomas with preoperative embolization was reported. Immediate complications of embolization were reported as major (sustained) or minor (transient) deficits, death, or no neurological deficits.

Results

A total of 36 studies comprising 459 patients were included in the review. Among patients receiving preoperative embolization for meningiomas, 4.6% (n = 21) sustained complications as a direct result of embolization. Of the 21 patients with embolization-induced complications, the incidence of major complications was 4.8% (n = 1) and the mortality rate was 9.5% (n = 2).

Conclusions

Preoperative embolization is associated with an added risk for morbidity and mortality. Preoperative embolization may be associated with significant complications, but careful selection of ideal cases for embolization may help reduce any added morbidity with this procedure. Although not analyzed in the authors' study, embolization may still reduce rates of surgical morbidity and mortality and therefore may still have a potential benefit for selected patients. Future prospective studies involving the use of preoperative embolization in certain cases of meningiomas may further elucidate its potential benefit and risks.

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Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Sandra C. Yan, Bradley A. Gross, Donovan Guttieres, William B. Gormley, Kai U. Frerichs, M. Ali Aziz-Sultan and Rose Du

OBJECTIVE

Although aspirin usage may be associated with a decreased risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms, any potential therapeutic benefit from aspirin must be weighed against the theoretical risk of greater hemorrhage volume if subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs. However, few studies have evaluated the association between prehemorrhage aspirin use and outcomes. This is the first nationwide analysis to evaluate the impact of long-term aspirin and anticoagulant use on outcomes after SAH.

METHODS

Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS; 2006–2011) were extracted. Patients with a primary diagnosis of SAH who underwent microsurgical or endovascular aneurysm repair were included; those with a diagnosis of an arteriovenous malformation were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to calculate the adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality, a nonroutine discharge (any discharge other than to home), or a poor outcome (death, discharge to institutional care, tracheostomy, or gastrostomy) for patients with long-term aspirin or anticoagulant use. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate length of hospital stay. Covariates included patient age, sex, comorbidities, primary payer, NIS-SAH severity scale, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral edema, herniation, modality of aneurysm repair, hospital bed size, and whether the hospital was a teaching hospital. Subgroup analyses exclusively evaluated patients treated surgically or endovascularly.

RESULTS

The study examined 11,549 hospital admissions. Both aspirin (2.1%, n = 245) and anticoagulant users (0.9%, n = 108) were significantly older and had a greater burden of comorbid disease (p < 0.001); severity of SAH was slightly lower in those with long-term aspirin use (p = 0.03). Neither in-hospital mortality (13.5% vs 12.6%) nor total complication rates (79.6% vs 80.0%) differed significantly by long-term aspirin use. Additionally, aspirin use was associated with decreased odds of a cardiac complication (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36%–0.91%, p = 0.02) or of venous thromboembolic events (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30%–0.94%, p = 0.03). Length of stay was significantly shorter (15 days vs 17 days [12.73%], 95% CI 5.22%–20.24%, p = 0.001), and the odds of a nonroutine discharge were lower (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48%–0.83%, p = 0.001) for aspirin users. In subgroup analyses, the benefits of aspirin were primarily noted in patients who underwent coil embolization; likewise, among patients treated endovascularly, the adjusted odds of a poor outcome were lower among long-term aspirin users (31.8% vs 37.4%, OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42%–0.94%, p = 0.03). Although the crude rates of in-hospital mortality (19.4% vs 12.6%) and poor outcome (53.6% vs 37.6%) were higher for long-term anticoagulant users, in multivariable logistic regression models these variations were not significantly different (mortality: OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.89%–2.07%, p = 0.16; poor outcome: OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.69%–1.73%, p = 0.72).

CONCLUSIONS

In this nationwide study, neither long-term aspirin nor anticoagulant use were associated with differential mortality or complication rates after SAH. Aspirin use was associated with a shorter hospital stay and lower rates of nonroutine discharge, with these benefits primarily observed in patients treated endovascularly.

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Yosuf W. Subat, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Bradley A. Gross, Nirav J. Patel, Kai U. Frerichs, Rose Du and M. Ali Aziz-Sultan

OBJECTIVE

The primary goal of the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is angiographic occlusion to eliminate future hemorrhage risk. Although multimodal treatment is increasingly used for AVMs, periprocedural hemorrhage after transarterial embolization is a potential endovascular complication that is only partially understood and merits quantification.

METHODS

Searching the period between 1990 and 2019, the authors of this meta-analysis queried the PubMed and Embase databases for studies reporting periprocedural hemorrhage (within 30 days) after liquid embolization (using cyanoacrylate or ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer) of AVMs. Random effects meta-analysis was used to evaluate the pooled rate of flow-related hemorrhage (those attributed to alterations in AVM dynamics), technical hemorrhage (those related to procedural complications), and total hemorrhage. Meta-regression was used to analyze the study-level predictors of hemorrhage, including patient age, Spetzler-Martin grade, hemorrhagic presentation, embolysate used, intent of treatment (adjuvant vs curative), associated aneurysms, endovascular angiographic obliteration, year of study publication, and years the procedures were performed.

RESULTS

A total of 98 studies with 8009 patients were included in this analysis, and the mean number of embolization sessions per patient was 1.9. The pooled flow-related and total periprocedural hemorrhage rates were 2.0% (95% CI 1.5%–2.4%) and 2.6% (95% CI 2.1%–3.0%) per procedure and 3.4% (95% CI 2.6%–4.2%) and 4.8% (95% CI 4.0%–5.6%) per patient, respectively. The mortality and morbidity rates associated with hemorrhage were 14.6% and 45.1%, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed a pooled total hemorrhage rate per procedure of 1.8% (95% CI 1.0%–2.5%) for adjuvant (surgery or radiosurgery) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.8%–6.4%) for curative intent. The treatment of aneurysms (p = 0.04) and larger patient populations (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of a lower hemorrhage rate, whereas curative intent (p = 0.04), angiographic obliteration achieved endovascularly (p = 0.003), and a greater number of embolization sessions (p = 0.03) were significant predictors of a higher hemorrhage rate. There were no significant differences in periprocedural hemorrhage rates according to the years evaluated or the embolysate utilized.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study-level meta-analysis, periprocedural hemorrhage was seen after 2.6% of transarterial embolization procedures for cerebral AVMs. The adjuvant use of endovascular embolization, including in the treatment of associated aneurysms and in the presurgical or preradiosurgical setting, was a study-level predictor of significantly lower hemorrhage rates, whereas more aggressive embolization involving curative intent and endovascular angiographic obliteration was a predictor of a significantly higher total hemorrhage rate.