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Garnette R. Sutherland, Martin E. King, S. J. Peerless, William C. Vezina, G. William Brown and Mike J. Chamberlain

✓ Turbulence within intracranial aneurysms may result in tearing of the aneurysmal wall, exposing the subendothelial matrix to circulating platelets. In this study, platelet interaction in giant intracranial aneurysms was evaluated by a dual-isotope technique employing 111In-labeled platelets and 99mTc-labeled red blood cells. The use of two isotopes allows the subtraction of the blood pool and the calculation of the ratio indium deposited:indium blood pool (In(D)/In(BP)). A ratio greater than zero indicates platelet deposition within the aneurysm.

Thirteen patients were evaluated in this way, with platelet deposition demonstrated in six. In these six patients, the ratio In(D)/In(BP) was found to be significantly elevated, with a mean value of 0.96 ± 0.65. Three of these six patients had symptoms of recurrent transient neurological deficits; one of these three suffered a complete stroke following documentation of platelet deposition. In this case, the aneurysm was obtained at surgery and was found to contain intraluminal platelet aggregation when viewed by scanning electron microscopy. In the remaining seven patients, the ratio In(D)/In(BP) was found not to be significantly elevated (mean −0.03 ± 0.06), indicating the absence of active platelet deposition. Two of these patients had prior symptoms of cerebral ischemia; one of these was found to have an ulcer in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery which was probably responsible for thromboembolic events to the hemisphere.

The authors conclude that platelet aggregation occurs more frequently than previously recognized in giant intracranial aneurysms, and their data substantiate the hypothesis that platelet metabolic products or thrombi originating from a large aneurysm may embolize to distal cerebral vessels.

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Ron Levy, Robin G. Cox, Walter J. Hader, Terry Myles, Garnette R. Sutherland and Mark G. Hamilton

Object

Over the past decade, the use of intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging in the pediatric neurosurgical population has become increasingly accepted as an innovative and important neurosurgical tool. The authors summarize their experience using a mobile 1.5-T iMR imaging unit with integrated neuronavigation with the goal of identifying procedures and/or pathologies in which the application of this technology changed the course of surgery or modified the operative strategy.

Methods

A database has been prospectively maintained for this patient population. The authors reviewed the hospital charts and imaging results for all patients in the database. This review revealed 105 neurosurgical procedures performed in 98 children (49 male and 49 female) between March 1998 and April 2008. Intradissection (ID) and/or quality assurance images were obtained at the discretion of the surgeon.

Results

The median age at surgery was 12 years (4 months–18 years). One hundred intracranial and 5 spinal procedures were performed; 22 of these procedures were performed for recurrent pathology. Surgical planning scans were obtained for 102 procedures, and neuronavigation was used in 93 patients. The greatest impact of iMR imaging was apparent in the 55 procedures to resect neoplastic lesions; ID scans were obtained in 49 of these procedures. Further surgery was performed in 49% of the procedures during which ID scans had been obtained. A smaller proportion of ID scans in the different cranial pathology groups (5 of 21 epilepsy cases, 4 of 9 vascular cases) resulted in further resections to meet the surgical goal of the surgeon. Two ID scans obtained during 5 procedures for the treatment of spinal disease did not lead to any change in surgery. Postoperative scans did not reveal any acute adverse events. There was 1 intraoperative adverse event in which a Greenberg retractor was inadvertently left on during ID scanning but was removed after the scout scans.

Conclusions

The application of iMR imaging in the pediatric neurosurgical population allows, at minimum, the opportunity to perform less invasive surgical exposures. Its potential is greatest when its high-quality imaging ability is coupled with its superior neuronavigation capabilities, which permits tracking of the extent of resection of intracranial tumors and, to a lesser extent, other lesions during the surgical procedure.

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Daniel Yavin, Judy Luu, Matthew T. James, Derek J. Roberts, Garnette R. Sutherland, Nathalie Jette and Samuel Wiebe

Object

Because clinical examination and imaging may be unreliable indicators of intracranial hypertension, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement has been proposed as a noninvasive method of diagnosis. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the correlation between IOP and intracranial pressure (ICP) and the diagnostic accuracy of IOP measurement for detection of intracranial hypertension.

Methods

The authors searched bibliographic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1950 to March 2013, references of included studies, and conference abstracts for studies comparing IOP and invasive ICP measurement. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, and extracted data. Correlation coefficients, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated using DerSimonian and Laird methods and bivariate random effects models. The I2 statistic was used as a measure of heterogeneity.

Results

Among 355 identified citations, 12 studies that enrolled 546 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled correlation coefficient between IOP and ICP was 0.44 (95% CI 0.26–0.63, I2 = 97.7%, p < 0.001). The summary sensitivity and specificity for IOP for diagnosing intracranial hypertension were 81% (95% CI 26%–98%, I2 = 95.2%, p < 0.01) and 95% (95% CI 43%–100%, I2 = 97.7%, p < 0.01), respectively. The summary positive and negative likelihood ratios were 14.8 (95% CI 0.5–417.7) and 0.2 (95% CI 0.02–1.7), respectively. When ICP and IOP measurements were taken within 1 hour of another, correlation between the measures improved.

Conclusions

Although a modest aggregate correlation was found between IOP and ICP, the pooled diagnostic accuracy suggests that IOP measurement may be of clinical utility in the detection of intracranial hypertension. Given the significant heterogeneity between included studies, further investigation is required prior to the adoption of IOP in the evaluation of intracranial hypertension into routine practice.