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Stephen J. Haines, Joseph C. Maroon and Peter J. Jannetta

✓ Five cases of supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage following posterior fossa surgery are reported. Possible etiologies are discussed, but in only one case can a definite etiology (hypertension) be found. The differential diagnosis of declining level of consciousness after posterior fossa surgery must include supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage, and computerized tomography seems to be the diagnostic method of choice.

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Stephen J. Haines, A. Julio Martinez and Peter J. Jannetta

✓ The autopsy findings in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia who died from unrelated causes are presented. Arterial cross compression of the appropriate trigeminal nerve at the pons was demonstrated. The relationship of arterial cross compression to trigeminal neuralgia is briefly discussed.

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Peter E. Sheptak and Peter J. Jannetta

✓ Total removal of huge acoustic neurinomas was carried out in 23 patients by means of a two-stage suboccipital transmeatal approach with microsurgical technique. There was no operative mortality. Good results were obtained in 18 (78%) of the patients who have returned to normal activities or full-time employment. Five patients (22%) have residual preoperative neurological deficits causing a reduced level of activity. All of these, except one, are able to care for themselves. None of the patients has had any further significant neurological deficit caused by the operative procedures. Anatomical integrity of the facial nerve was maintained in 17 patients (74%). Surgical technique, operative morbidity, and results are thoroughly discussed. The potential advantages of this technique are stressed.

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Microvascular relations of the trigeminal nerve

An anatomical study with clinical correlation

Stephen J. Haines, Peter J. Jannetta and David S. Zorub

✓ The vascular relationships of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone were examined bilaterally in 20 cadavers of individuals known to be free of facial pain. Fourteen of 40 nerves made contact with an artery, but only four of these showed evidence of compression or distortion of the nerve. In addition, the vascular relationships of 40 trigeminal nerves exposed surgically for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia were studied, and 31 nerves showed compression by adjacent arteries. Venous compression was seen in four of the cadaver nerves and in eight nerves from patients with trigeminal neuralgia. These data support the hypothesis that arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve is associated with trigeminal neuralgia.

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Anterior surgery for cervical disc disease

Part 1: Treatment of lateral cervical disc herniation in 253 cases

L. Dade Lunsford, David J. Bissonette, Peter J. Jannetta, Peter E. Sheptak and David S. Zorub

✓ Between 1971 and 1977, 334 patients at the Presbyterian-University Hospital underwent anterior surgery for treatment of hard or soft cervical disc herniation. Of these patients, 295 had radicular symptoms only. This retrospective study details the results of anterior cervical surgery for treatment of lateral disc herniation in 253 patients who survived 1 to 7 years postoperatively. Sixty-seven percent had excellent or good results. Although 77% initially noted complete relief of symptoms after surgery, 38% subsequently developed one or more recurrent symptoms at some time during the follow-up period. The overall results of surgery for soft disc cases were no different from the results for hard discs, although significantly more hard disc cases required postoperative conservative treatment. The results of surgery after anterior fusion were no different than the results after anterior discectomy alone. However, overall postoperative complications were more frequent and hospitalizations were longer in the patients who underwent fusion. Patients with multiple-level surgery had statistically similar results to those with single-level surgery. None of the nine preoperative clinical features reported by others to influence the results of anterior cervical surgery were found to consistently affect outcome in the present series.

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Ricardo Segal, Peter J. Jannetta, Sidney K. Wolfson Jr., Manuel Dujovny and Eugene E. Cook

✓ A self-contained neurovascular compression simulator (NCS) has been designed to function as an artificial artery that pulsates with the heart. When implanted in animals, this device simulates those naturally occurring situations in which there is compression of nervous elements in the region of the brain stem or other areas by aberrant, or ectatic branches of normal arteries. The NCS consists of an intra-aortic balloon, a smaller (cephalic) balloon, a connecting tube, and an injection port, all fabricated of polyurethane-silicone compounds. With each heart systole, the rise in intra-aortic pressure is transmitted to the smaller cephalic balloon in the form of a pulsation. Thus, part of the cardiac ejection energy is transferred to the desired nervous structures. The performance of each NCS is tested in vitro in a pulse duplicator system.

The NCS was chronically implanted for up to 2 years in four dogs and 10 baboons. The cephalic balloon was placed intracranially in the subarachnoid space on the ventrolateral medulla adjacent to the entry zone of the ninth and 10th cranial nerves on the left side of baboons and on the right side of dogs. The position of the balloons was checked by fluoroscopy. Following implantation, the NCS could be inflated or deflated at will using the injection port which served to restart or discontinue the pulsations. No occlusion of the aorta or reduction of blood flow to the lower limbs or trunk was detected. By means of the NCS, an experimental model of neurogenic hypertension was produced in baboons.