Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 29 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jun-ichi Kuratsu x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jun-ichi Kuratsu, Masato Kochi and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The increased use of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) technology has led to an increase in the detection of asymptomatic meningiomas, although the surgical indication for these tumors remains undetermined. The authors investigated the incidence of asymptomatic meningiomas and their clinical features.

Methods. An epidemiological survey was conducted of primary intracranial tumors diagnosed in Kumamoto Prefecture between 1989 and 1996. Follow-up neuroradiological imaging and clinical studies for asymptomatic meningiomas were performed.

Primary intracranial tumors were diagnosed in 1563 residents. Of these lesions, 504 (32.2%) were meningiomas, and of these meningiomas 196 (38.9%) were asymptomatic. The incidence of asymptomatic meningiomas was significantly higher in individuals older than 70 years of age. Furthermore, the incidence of asymptomatic meningiomas was significantly higher in female than in male patients. Of the asymptomatic meningiomas in 196 patients, 87 (44.4%) were surgically removed, whereas 109 (55.6%) were treated conservatively. Of these conservatively treated patients, 63 received follow-up care for more than 1 year. In 20 of these 63 cases, the tumors increased in size over the 27.8-month average follow-up period (range 12–87 months), whereas in the other 43 cases, the tumor size did not increase during a 36.6-month average follow-up period (range 12–96 months). There was no significant difference with respect to age, tumor size, and male/female ratio between the patient group in which the tumor size increased and the group in which it did not increase during the follow-up period. Asymptomatic meningiomas that evidenced calcification on CT scans and/or hypointensity on T2-weighted MR images appear to have a slower growth rate.

Conclusions. Among patients older than age 70 years who underwent operation for asymptomatic meningioma, the neurological morbidity rate was 23.3%; it was 3.5% among younger patients. This indicates that the advisability of surgery in elderly patients with asymptomatic meningiomas must be considered very carefully.

Restricted access

Giant chondroma arising from the dura mater of the convexity

Case report and review of the literature

Masaki Nakayama, Tetsuya Nagayama, Hirofumi Hirano, Tatsuki Oyoshi and Jun-ichi Kuratsu

✓ Chondromas arising from the dura mater are rare intracranial tumors. The authors present a case of intracranial giant chondroma originating from the dura mater of the convexity. Neuroimaging and surgical findings are described. The diagnostic clues are discussed and similar cases from the literature are reviewed.

Restricted access

Hirofumi Hirano, Koji Tanioka, Shunichi Yokoyama, Shin-ichi Akiyama and Jun-ichi Kuratsu

Object. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are known angiogenic factors; however, there are few reports in which the relationship between these two factors is addressed. The authors compared expression patterns of TP and VEGF and investigated their role in the angiogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

Methods. Surgical specimens from 41 cases of GBM were immunohistochemically stained for TP, VEGF, CD68 (a macrophage marker), and CD31 (an endothelial cell marker). Both TP labeling indices and VEGF immunoreactivity displayed significant correlations with vascular density. Although VEGF was diffusely distributed in the tumor, TP was strongly expressed around blood vessels and in vascular proliferation. Double labeling for TP and CD68 in 10 cases indicated that cells that reacted strongly positive for TP were almost always macrophages, and only small numbers of CD68-negative cells weakly expressed TP.

The TP messenger (m)RNA expression was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in six GBMs. All six specimens expressed TP mRNA. In addition, TP mRNA was detected in two of three groups of cultured GBM cells derived from surgical specimens. Macrophages, the production of which was induced from two volunteers' peripheral blood monocytes by applying macrophage colony-stimulating factor, also expressed TP mRNA. The glioma cell lines U251MG and U87MG, which barely express TP mRNA under normal conditions, expressed TP mRNA in response to interferon-β stimulation or while in an anoxic condition.

Conclusions. Although it is feasible that GBM cells can express TP depending on their growing conditions, the majority of TP-expressing cells present in GBMs appear to be infiltrating macrophages. Coexistence of VEGF and TP may indicate a synergistic upregulation for angiogenesis because VEGF exerts a chemotactic activity on macrophages that express TP.

Restricted access

Kenji Tada, Shoji Shiraishi, Takanori Kamiryo, Hideo Nakamura, Hirofumi Hirano, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Masato Kochi, Hideyuki Saya and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The most frequent genetic abnormality in human malignant gliomas is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10. Candidate genes on chromosome 10 that are associated with the prognosis of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GBM) were evaluated.

Methods. The authors used 12 fluorescent microsatellite markers on both arms of chromosome 10 to study LOH in 108 primary astrocytic tumors. The LOH on chromosome 10 was observed in 11 (32%) of 34 AAs and 34 (56%) of 61 GBMs. No LOH was detected in 13 low-grade gliomas. Loss of heterozygosity was not detected in any AA in the seven patients younger than 35 years, but it was discovered in 41% of the patients older than 35 years. The prognostic significance of LOH at each locus was evaluated in 89 patients older than 15 years; 33 (37%) had supratentorial AAs and 56 (63%) had supratentorial GBMs. The Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for patient age at surgery, the preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and the extent of surgical resection revealed that LOH on marker D10S209 near the FGFR2 and DMBT1 genes was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with AA. The LOH on markers D10S215 and D10S541, which contain the PTEN/MMAC1 gene between them, was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with GBM.

Conclusions. In the present study it is found that LOH on chromosome 10 is an age-dependent event for patients with AAs and that LOH on marker D10S209 near the FGFR2 and DMBT1 loci is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor. It is also reported that LOH on the PTEN/MMAC1 gene is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with GBM.

Restricted access

Takanori Kamiryo, Kenji Tada, Shoji Shiraishi, Naoki Shinojima, Hideo Nakamura, Masato Kochi, Jun-ichi Kuratsu, Hideyuki Saya and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. One of the most frequent genetic abnormalities found in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is homozygous deletion of the p16 tumor suppressor gene. The authors investigated whether this deletion is associated with prognosis in patients with GBM.

Methods. In 46 adult patients with supratentorial GBM, homozygous deletion of the p16 gene in tumor DNA was examined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The deletion was confirmed in 14 (30.4%) of 46 patients, eight (30.8%) of 26 men and six (30.0%) of 20 women. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusted for age at surgery, the Karnofsky Performance Scale score, extent of resection, and the MIB-1 labeling index, revealed that homozygous deletion of the p16 gene was significantly associated with overall survival and progression-free survival in men, but not in women.

Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that p16 homozygous deletion is a significant unfavorable prognostic factor in male patients with GBM.

Restricted access

Osamu Miyanohara, Hideo Takeshima, Masatomo Kaji, Hirofumi Hirano, Yutaka Sawamura, Masato Kochi and Jun-Ichi Kuratsu

Object. Overexpression of the protooncogene c-kit has been suggested in a gonadal germ cell tumor (GCT). Recently, the soluble isoform of c-kit (s-kit) has been expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of c-kit and the clinical significance of s-kit in patients with GCTs.

Methods. The authors first conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the expression of the c-kit protein in 27 surgical specimens. In all 18 specimens that contained germinomas, c-kit was diffusely expressed on the cell surface of the germinoma cells, but was not found on lymphocytes or interstitial cells. In seven of eight immature teratomas, only some mature components, such as cartilage and glands, were immunoreactive for c-kit. Syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs) demonstrated negative findings as well, suggesting that primarily germinoma cells express c-kit. Next, 47 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from 32 patients with GCTs (15 samples from patients with pure germinomas, 16 from patients with STGC germinomas, 14 from patients with teratomas, and two from a patient with a choriocarcinoma) were analyzed using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The level of s-kit was significantly higher in CSF collected from patients with germinomas and STGC germinomas than in CSF collected from patients with teratomas or non—germ cell brain tumors, or in CSF collected from controls. The concentration of s-kit in CSF was correlated with the patient's clinical course; it was significantly higher in pretreatment samples obtained before and in samples obtained at the time of tumor recurrence than in samples collected from patients in whom the tumor was in remission. The level of s-kit was remarkably high in CSF collected from patients with subarachnoid tumor dissemination.

Conclusions. These results indicate that the concentration of s-kit in CSF may be a useful clinical marker for germinomas, especially for detecting recurrence or subarachnoid dissemination of these lesions.

Restricted access

Tetsuya Nagayama, Masatomo Kaji, Hirofumi Hirano, Masaki Niiro and Jun-ichi Kuratsu

✓ The authors report on a 52-year-old woman with a cerebellar hemangioblastoma who presented with a 2-year history of intractable hiccups. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance images revealed a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with compression of the brainstem at the level of the medulla oblongata. The patient has been free of hiccups and has been neurologically intact since the day after total removal of the tumor. A review of the literature on medullary lesions presenting with intractable hiccups is provided.

Restricted access

Naoki Shinojima, Masato Kochi, Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Hideo Nakamura, Shigetoshi Yano, Keishi Makino, Hiromasa Tsuiki, Kenji Tada, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Yasuji Ishimaru and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains incurable by conventional treatments, although some patients experience long-term survival. A younger age, a higher Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, more aggressive treatment, and long progression-free intervals have been reported to be positively associated with long-term postoperative patient survival. The aim of this retrospective study was the identification of additional favorable prognostic factors affecting long-term survival in surgically treated adult patients with supratentorial GBM.

Methods. Of 113 adult patients newly diagnosed with histologically verified supratentorial GBM who were enrolled in Phase III trials during the period between 1987 and 1998, six (5.3%) who survived for longer than 5 years were defined as long-term survivors, whereas the remaining 107 patients served as controls. All six were women and were compared with the controls; they were younger (mean age 44.2 years, range 31–60 years), and their preoperative KPS scores were higher (mean 85, range 60–100). Four of the six patients underwent gross-total resection. In five patients (83.3%) the progression-free interval was longer than 5 years and in three a histopathological diagnosis of giant cell GBM was made. This diagnosis was not made in the other 107 patients.

Conclusions. Among adult patients with supratentorial GBM, female sex and histopathological characteristics consistent with giant cell GBM may be predictive of a better survival rate, as may traditional factors (that is, younger age, good KPS score, more aggressive resection, and a long progression-free interval).

Restricted access

Takashi Kamezawa, Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Masaki Niiro, Yutaka Kai, Koichi Ishimaru and Jun-ichi Kuratsu

Object. The authors reviewed angiograms obtained in patients with cavernous malformations to identify and characterize coexisting venous drainage.

Methods. Fifty-seven patients with cavernous malformations treated at the authors' institutions between 1994 and 2002 were classified into three groups according to the venous system adjacent to the malformation on angiography studies. In Group A patients (23 patients) the malformations had no venous drainage; in Group B patients (14 patients) the lesions were associated with typical venous malformations; and in Group C patients (20 patients) the lesions had atypical venous drainage (AVD). The risk of hemorrhage based on the type of associated venous drainage was analyzed, and the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared with digital subtraction (DS) angiography in demonstrating associated AVD was determined.

Fifty-seven patients harbored 67 cavernous malformations: Group A patients had 29 cavernous malformations with no associated venous drainage; Group B patients had 17 lesions associated with venous malformations; and Group C patients harbored 21 lesions, 20 of which manifested AVD. Symptomatic hemorrhage was present in 10 (43.5%) of 23 Group A patients and in 28 (82.4%) of 34 Groups B and C patients. Although high-resolution MR imaging revealed the presence of associated venous malformations in 11 (78.6%) of 14 Group B patients, such studies demonstrated AVD in only two (10%) of 20 Group C patients.

Conclusions. Patients harboring cavernous malformations plus venous malformations or AVD are more likely to present with symptomatic hemorrhage than are patients with cavernous malformation alone. The actual incidence of associated venous drainage may be underestimated when MR imaging alone is used rather than combined with DS angiography.

Restricted access

Tadashi Hamasaki, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Morioka, Shu Hasegawa, Masahito Kurino and Jun-Ichi Kuratsu

✓ The authors present a histological study of resected tissue obtained from an 18-month-old girl with split cord malformation Type II whose right foot was smaller than her left. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed duplication of the spinal cord below the level of L-1. On laminectomy it was discovered that the cord was tethered in the lumbosacral region. The resected tissue contained the cluster of paramedian dorsal root ganglia unique to this congenital anomaly. On histological examination, the ganglion cells expressed not only neuronal markers but also a marker for muscle cells indicative of pathological development of the midline structure. Further histological study is necessary to gain a deeper insight into this congenital disease and to obtain additional information for use in surgical planning.