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Bram P. Verhofste, Michael P. Glotzbecker, Michael T. Hresko, Patricia E. Miller, Craig M. Birch, Michael J. Troy, Lawrence I. Karlin, John B. Emans, Mark R. Proctor and Daniel J. Hedequist

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric cervical deformity is a complex disorder often associated with neurological deterioration requiring cervical spine fusion. However, limited literature exists on new perioperative neurological deficits in children. This study describes new perioperative neurological deficits in pediatric cervical spine instrumentation and fusion.

METHODS

A single-center review of pediatric cervical spine instrumentation and fusion during 2002–2018 was performed. Demographics, surgical characteristics, and neurological complications were recorded. Perioperative neurological deficits were defined as the deterioration of preexisting neurological function or the appearance of new neurological symptoms.

RESULTS

A total of 184 cases (160 patients, 57% male) with an average age of 12.6 ± 5.30 years (range 0.2–24.9 years) were included. Deformity (n = 39) and instability (n = 36) were the most frequent indications. Syndromes were present in 39% (n = 71), with Down syndrome (n = 20) and neurofibromatosis (n = 12) the most prevalent. Eighty-seven (48%) children presented with preoperative neurological deficits (16 sensory, 16 motor, and 55 combined deficits).

A total of 178 (96.7%) cases improved or remained neurologically stable. New neurological deficits occurred in 6 (3.3%) cases: 3 hemiparesis, 1 hemiplegia, 1 quadriplegia, and 1 quadriparesis. Preoperative neurological compromise was seen in 4 (67%) of these new deficits (3 myelopathy, 1 sensory deficit) and 5 had complex syndromes. Three new deficits were anticipated with intraoperative neuromonitoring changes (p = 0.025).

Three (50.0%) patients with new neurological deficits recovered within 6 months and the child with quadriparesis was regaining neurological function at the latest follow-up. Hemiplegia persisted in 1 patient, and 1 child died due a complication related to the tracheostomy. No association was found between neurological deficits and indication (p = 0.96), etiology (p = 0.46), preoperative neurological symptoms (p = 0.65), age (p = 0.56), use of halo vest (p = 0.41), estimated blood loss (p = 0.09), levels fused (p = 0.09), approach (p = 0.07), or fusion location (p = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS

An improvement of the preexisting neurological deficit or stabilization of neurological function was seen in 96.7% of children after cervical spine fusion. New or progressive neurological deficits occurred in 3.3% of the patients and occurred more frequently in children with preoperative neurological symptoms. Patients with syndromic diagnoses are at higher risk to develop a deficit, probably due to the severity of deformity and the degree of cervical instability. Long-term outcomes of new neurological deficits are favorable, and 50% of patients experienced complete neurological recovery within 6 months.

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Emily K. Miller, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Alan H. Daniels, Tamir Ailon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish, Virginie Lafage, Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to analyze the value of an adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) in preoperative risk stratification. Preoperative risk assessment is imperative before procedures known to have high complication rates, such as ASD surgery. Frailty has been associated with risk of complications in trauma surgery, and preoperative frailty assessments could improve the accuracy of risk stratification by providing a comprehensive analysis of patient factors that contribute to an increased risk of complications.

METHODS

Using 40 variables, the authors calculated frailty scores with a validated method for 417 patients (enrolled between 2010 and 2014) with a minimum 2-year follow-up in an ASD database. On the basis of these scores, the authors categorized patients as not frail (NF) (< 0.3 points), frail (0.3–0.5 points), or severely frail (SF) (> 0.5 points). The correlation between frailty category and incidence of complications was analyzed.

RESULTS

The overall mean ASD-FI score was 0.33 (range 0.0–0.8). Compared with NF patients (n = 183), frail patients (n = 158) and SF patients (n = 109) had longer mean hospital stays (1.2 and 1.6 times longer, respectively; p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of experiencing a major intraoperative or postoperative complication were higher for frail patients (OR 2.8) and SF patients ( 4.1) compared with NF patients (p < 0.01). For frail and SF patients, respectively, the adjusted odds of developing proximal junctional kyphosis (OR 2.8 and 3.1) were higher than those for NF patients. The SF patients had higher odds of developing pseudarthrosis (OR 13.0), deep wound infection (OR 8.0), and wound dehiscence (OR 13.4) than NF patients (p < 0.05), and they had 2.1 times greater odds of reoperation (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Greater patient frailty, as measured by the ASD-FI, was associated with worse outcome in many common quality and value metrics, including greater risk of major complications, proximal junctional kyphosis, pseudarthrosis, deep wound infection, wound dehiscence, reoperation, and longer hospital stay.

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Michel Lacroix, Dima Abi-Said, Daryl R. Fourney, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Weiming Shi, Franco DeMonte, Frederick F. Lang, Ian E. McCutcheon, Samuel J. Hassenbusch, Eric Holland, Kenneth Hess, Christopher Michael, Daniel Miller and Raymond Sawaya

Object. The extent of tumor resection that should be undertaken in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to identify significant independent predictors of survival in these patients and to determine whether the extent of resection was associated with increased survival time.

Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed 416 consecutive patients with histologically proven GBM who underwent tumor resection at the authors' institution between June 1993 and June 1999. Volumetric data and other tumor characteristics identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were collected prospectively.

Conclusions. Five independent predictors of survival were identified: age, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, extent of resection, and the degree of necrosis and enhancement on preoperative MR imaging studies. A significant survival advantage was associated with resection of 98% or more of the tumor volume (median survival 13 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.4–14.6 months), compared with 8.8 months (95% CI 7.4–10.2 months; p < 0.0001) for resections of less than 98%. Using an outcome scale ranging from 0 to 5 based on age, KPS score, and tumor necrosis on MR imaging, we observed significantly longer survival in patients with lower scores (1–3) who underwent aggressive resections, and a trend toward slightly longer survival was found in patients with higher scores (4–5). Gross-total tumor resection is associated with longer survival in patients with GBM, especially when other predictive variables are favorable.

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Vejay N. Vakharia, Rachel Sparks, Roman Rodionov, Sjoerd B. Vos, Christian Dorfer, Jonathan Miller, Daniel Nilsson, Martin Tisdall, Stefan Wolfsberger, Andrew W. McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Gavin P. Winston, Aidan G. O’Keeffe, Sebastien Ourselin and John S. Duncan

OBJECTIVE

One-third of cases of focal epilepsy are drug refractory, and surgery might provide a cure. Seizure-free outcome after surgery depends on the correct identification and resection of the epileptogenic zone. In patients with no visible abnormality on MRI, or in cases in which presurgical evaluation yields discordant data, invasive stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings might be necessary. SEEG is a procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed stereotactically in key targets within the brain to record interictal and ictal electrophysiological activity. Correlating this activity with seizure semiology enables identification of the seizure-onset zone and key structures within the ictal network. The main risk related to electrode placement is hemorrhage, which occurs in 1% of patients who undergo the procedure. Planning safe electrode placement for SEEG requires meticulous adherence to the following: 1) maximize the distance from cerebral vasculature, 2) avoid crossing sulcal pial boundaries (sulci), 3) maximize gray matter sampling, 4) minimize electrode length, 5) drill at an angle orthogonal to the skull, and 6) avoid critical neurological structures. The authors provide a validation of surgical strategizing and planning with EpiNav, a multimodal platform that enables automated computer-assisted planning (CAP) for electrode placement with user-defined regions of interest.

METHODS

Thirteen consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a total 116 electrodes over a 15-month period were studied retrospectively. Models of the cortex, gray matter, and sulci were generated from patient-specific whole-brain parcellation, and vascular segmentation was performed on the basis of preoperative MR venography. Then, the multidisciplinary implantation strategy and precise trajectory planning were reconstructed using CAP and compared with the implemented manually determined plans. Paired results for safety metric comparisons were available for 104 electrodes. External validity of the suitability and safety of electrode entry points, trajectories, and target-point feasibility was sought from 5 independent, blinded experts from outside institutions.

RESULTS

CAP-generated electrode trajectories resulted in a statistically significant improvement in electrode length, drilling angle, gray matter–sampling ratio, minimum distance from segmented vasculature, and risk (p < 0.05). The blinded external raters had various opinions of trajectory feasibility that were not statistically significant, and they considered a mean of 69.4% of manually determined trajectories and 62.2% of CAP-generated trajectories feasible; 19.4% of the CAP-generated electrode-placement plans were deemed feasible when the manually determined plans were not, whereas 26.5% of the manually determined electrode-placement plans were rated feasible when CAP-determined plans were not (no significant difference).

CONCLUSIONS

CAP generates clinically feasible electrode-placement plans and results in statistically improved safety metrics. CAP is a useful tool for automating the placement of electrodes for SEEG; however, it requires the operating surgeon to review the results before implantation, because only 62% of electrode-placement plans were rated feasible, compared with 69% of the manually determined placement plans, mainly because of proximity of the electrodes to unsegmented vasculature. Improved vascular segmentation and sulcal modeling could lead to further improvements in the feasibility of CAP-generated trajectories.

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Micheal Raad, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Peter G. Passias, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Emily K. Miller, Justin S. Smith, Virginie Lafage, D. Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Khaled M. Kebaish, Daniel M. Sciubba and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Given the recent shift in health care toward quality reporting requirements and a greater emphasis on a cost-quality approach, patient stratification with respect to long-term outcomes and the use of health care resources is of increasing value. Stratification tools may be effective if they are simple and evidence based. The authors hypothesize that preoperative patient-reported activity levels might independently predict postoperative outcomes in patients with adult spinal deformity.

METHODS

This is a retrospective cohort. A total of 575 patients in a prospective adult spinal deformity surgical database were identified with complete data regarding the preoperative level of activity. Answers to question 5 of the Scoliosis Research Society-22r Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22r) were used to stratify patients into active and inactive groups. Outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS), level of activity, and reaching the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for SRS-22r domains and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-36 at 2 years postoperatively. The 2 groups were compared with respect to several potential confounders. Covariates with p < 0.1 were controlled for. The impact of activity on LOS was assessed using multivariate negative binomial regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models additionally controlling for the respective baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores were used to assess the association between preoperative activity levels and reaching the MCID at 2 years postoperatively.

RESULTS

A total of 420 (73%) of the 575 patients who met the inclusion criteria had complete data at 2 years postoperatively. The inactive group was more likely to be significantly older, have a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, worse baseline radiographic deformity, and greater correction of most radiographic parameters. After controlling for possible confounders, the active group had a significantly shorter LOS (incidence risk ratio 0.91, p = 0.043). After adding respective baseline HRQOL scores to the models, active patients were significantly more likely to reach the MCID for the SRS-22r pain domain (OR 1.72, p = 0.026) and PCS (OR 1.94, p = 0.013). Active patients were also significantly more likely to be active at 2 years postoperatively on multivariate analysis (OR 8.94, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results show that patients who belong to the inactive group are likely to have a longer LOS and lower odds of reaching the MCID in HRQOL or being active at 2 years postoperatively. Inquiring about patients’ preoperative activity levels might be a reliable and simple stratification tool in terms of long- and short-term outcomes in ASD patients.

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David M. Wrubel, Kelsie J. Riemenschneider, Corinne Braender, Brandon A. Miller, Daniel A. Hirsh, Andrew Reisner, William Boydston, Barunashish Brahma and Joshua J. Chern

Object

Quality assessment measures have not been well developed for pediatric neurosurgical patients. This report documents the authors' experience in extracting information from an administrative database to establish the rate of return to system within 30 days of pediatric neurosurgical procedures.

Methods

Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics were prospectively collected in administrative, business, and operating room databases. The primary end point was an unexpected return to the hospital system within 30 days from the date of a pediatric neurosurgical procedure. Statistical methods were used to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the primary end point.

Results

There were 1358 pediatric neurosurgical procedures performed in the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta operating rooms in 2012, with 37.4% of these surgeries being preceded by admissions through the emergency department. Medicare or Medicaid was the payor for 54.9% of surgeries, and 37.6% of surgeries were shunt related. There were 148 unexpected returns to the system within 30 days after surgery, and in 109 of these cases, the patient had a presenting complaint that was attributable to the index surgery (related returns). The most common complaints were headache, nausea, vomiting, or seizure after shunt revision or cranial procedures (n = 62). The next most common reason for re-presentation was for wound concerns (n = 30). Thirty-seven of the 109 related returns resulted in a reoperation. The monthly rate of related returns was 8.1% ± 2.5% over the 12-month study period. When using related returns as the dependent variable, the authors found that patients who underwent a shunt-related surgery were both more likely to unexpectedly return to the system (OR 1.86, p = 0.008) and to require surgery upon readmission (OR 3.28, p = 0.004). Because an extended hospitalization shortened the window of time for readmission after surgery, extended length of stay was protective against return to system within 30 days of surgery. Importantly, if related and unrelated returns were analyzed together as the dependent variable (n = 148), no independent clinical and demographic risk factor could be identified.

Conclusions

Quality assessment measures need to be clearly and carefully defined, as the definition itself will impact the analytical results. Clinicians must play a leading role in the development of these measures to ensure their clinical meaningfulness.

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Vejay N. Vakharia, Rachel Sparks, Roman Rodionov, Sjoerd B. Vos, Christian Dorfer, Jonathan Miller, Daniel Nilsson, Martin Tisdall, Stefan Wolfsberger, Andrew W. McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Gavin P. Winston, Aidan G. O’Keeffe, Sebastien Ourselin and John S. Duncan

OBJECTIVE

One-third of cases of focal epilepsy are drug refractory, and surgery might provide a cure. Seizure-free outcome after surgery depends on the correct identification and resection of the epileptogenic zone. In patients with no visible abnormality on MRI, or in cases in which presurgical evaluation yields discordant data, invasive stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings might be necessary. SEEG is a procedure in which multiple electrodes are placed stereotactically in key targets within the brain to record interictal and ictal electrophysiological activity. Correlating this activity with seizure semiology enables identification of the seizure-onset zone and key structures within the ictal network. The main risk related to electrode placement is hemorrhage, which occurs in 1% of patients who undergo the procedure. Planning safe electrode placement for SEEG requires meticulous adherence to the following: 1) maximize the distance from cerebral vasculature, 2) avoid crossing sulcal pial boundaries (sulci), 3) maximize gray matter sampling, 4) minimize electrode length, 5) drill at an angle orthogonal to the skull, and 6) avoid critical neurological structures. The authors provide a validation of surgical strategizing and planning with EpiNav, a multimodal platform that enables automated computer-assisted planning (CAP) for electrode placement with user-defined regions of interest.

METHODS

Thirteen consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a total 116 electrodes over a 15-month period were studied retrospectively. Models of the cortex, gray matter, and sulci were generated from patient-specific whole-brain parcellation, and vascular segmentation was performed on the basis of preoperative MR venography. Then, the multidisciplinary implantation strategy and precise trajectory planning were reconstructed using CAP and compared with the implemented manually determined plans. Paired results for safety metric comparisons were available for 104 electrodes. External validity of the suitability and safety of electrode entry points, trajectories, and target-point feasibility was sought from 5 independent, blinded experts from outside institutions.

RESULTS

CAP-generated electrode trajectories resulted in a statistically significant improvement in electrode length, drilling angle, gray matter–sampling ratio, minimum distance from segmented vasculature, and risk (p < 0.05). The blinded external raters had various opinions of trajectory feasibility that were not statistically significant, and they considered a mean of 69.4% of manually determined trajectories and 62.2% of CAP-generated trajectories feasible; 19.4% of the CAP-generated electrode-placement plans were deemed feasible when the manually determined plans were not, whereas 26.5% of the manually determined electrode-placement plans were rated feasible when CAP-determined plans were not (no significant difference).

CONCLUSIONS

CAP generates clinically feasible electrode-placement plans and results in statistically improved safety metrics. CAP is a useful tool for automating the placement of electrodes for SEEG; however, it requires the operating surgeon to review the results before implantation, because only 62% of electrode-placement plans were rated feasible, compared with 69% of the manually determined placement plans, mainly because of proximity of the electrodes to unsegmented vasculature. Improved vascular segmentation and sulcal modeling could lead to further improvements in the feasibility of CAP-generated trajectories.

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Benjamin L. Brown, Demetrius Lopes, David A. Miller, Rabih G. Tawk, Leonardo B. C. Brasiliense, Andrew Ringer, Eric Sauvageau, Ciarán J. Powers, Adam Arthur, Daniel Hoit, Kenneth Snyder, Adnan Siddiqui, Elad Levy, L. Nelson Hopkins, Hugo Cuellar, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Erol Veznedaroglu, Mandy Binning, J Mocco, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Alan Boulos, Junichi Yamamoto and Ricardo A. Hanel

OBJECT

The authors sought to determine whether flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) can approximate microsurgical decompression in restoring function after cranial neuropathy following carotid artery aneurysms.

METHODS

This multiinstitutional retrospective study involved 45 patients treated with PED across the United States. All patients included presented between November 2009 and October 2013 with cranial neuropathy (cranial nerves [CNs] II, III, IV, and VI) due to intracranial aneurysm. Outcome analysis included clinical and procedural variables at the time of treatment as well as at the latest clinical and radiographic follow-up.

RESULTS

Twenty-six aneurysms (57.8%) were located in the cavernous segment, while 6 (13.3%) were in the clinoid segment, and 13 (28.9%) were in the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery. The average aneurysm size was 18.6 mm (range 4–35 mm), and the average number of flow diverters placed per patient was 1.2. Thirty-eight patients had available information regarding duration of cranial neuropathy prior to treatment. Eleven patients (28.9%) were treated within 1 month of symptom onset, while 27 (71.1%) were treated after 1 month of symptoms. The overall rate of cranial neuropathy improvement for all patients was 66.7%. The CN deficits resolved in 19 patients (42.2%), improved in 11 (24.4%), were unchanged in 14 (31.1%), and worsened in 1 (2.2%). Overtime, the rate of cranial neuropathy improvement was 33.3% (15/45), 68.8% (22/32), and 81.0% (17/21) at less than 6, 6, and 12 months, respectively. At last follow-up, 60% of patients in the isolated CN II group had improvement, while in the CN III, IV, or VI group, 85.7% had improved. Moreover, 100% (11/11) of patients experienced improvement if they were treated within 1 month of symptom onset, whereas 44.4% (12/27) experienced improvement if they treated after 1 month of symptom onset; 70.4% (19/27) of those with partial deficits improved compared with 30% (3/10) of those with complete deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

Cranial neuropathy caused by cerebral aneurysm responds similarly when the aneurysm is treated with the PED compared with open surgery and coil embolization. Lower morbidity and higher occlusion rates obtained with the PED may suggest it as treatment of choice for some of these lesions. Time to treatment is an important consideration regardless of treatment modality.