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Felix Umansky, Yigal Shoshan, Guy Rosenthal, Shifra Fraifeld and Sergey Spektor

✓ The long-term or delayed side effects of irradiation on neural tissue are now known to include the induction of new central nervous system neoplasms. However, during the first half of the 20th century, human neural tissue was generally considered relatively resistant to the carcinogenic and other ill effects of ionizing radiation. As a result, exposure to relatively high doses of x-rays from diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatment was common.

In the present article the authors review the literature relating to radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs). Emphasis is placed on meningiomas resulting from childhood treatment for primary brain tumor or tinea capitis, exposure to dental x-rays, and exposure to atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence and natural history of RIMs following exposure to high- and low-dose radiation is presented, including latency, multiplicity, histopathological features, and recurrence rates. The authors review the typical presentation of patients with RIMs and discuss unique aspects of the surgical management of these tumors compared with sporadic meningioma, based on their clinical experience in treating these lesions.

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Guy Rosenthal, Alex Furmanov, Eyal Itshayek, Yigal Shoshan and Vineeta Singh

Object

Development of a noninvasive monitor to assess cerebral oxygenation has long been a goal in neurocritical care. The authors evaluated the feasibility and utility of a noninvasive cerebral oxygenation monitor, the CerOx 3110, which uses near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound to measure regional cerebral tissue oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and compared measurements obtained using this device to those obtained using invasive cerebral monitoring.

Methods

Patients with severe TBI admitted to the intensive care unit at Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital requiring intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and advanced neuromonitoring were included in this study. The authors assessed 18 patients with severe TBI using the CerOx monitor and invasive advanced cerebral monitors.

Results

The mean age of the patients was 45.3 ± 23.7 years and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission was 5 (interquartile range 3–7). Eight patients underwent unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy and 1 patient underwent craniotomy. Sixteen patients underwent insertion of a jugular bulb venous catheter, and 18 patients underwent insertion of a Licox brain tissue oxygen monitor. The authors found a strong correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) between the jugular bulb venous saturation from the venous blood gas and the CerOx measure of regional cerebral tissue saturation on the side ipsilateral to the catheter. A multivariate analysis revealed that among the physiological parameters of mean arterial blood pressure, ICP, brain tissue oxygen tension, and CerOx measurements on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides, only ipsilateral CerOx measurements were significantly correlated to jugular bulb venous saturation (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Measuring regional cerebral tissue oxygenation with the CerOx monitor in a noninvasive manner is feasible in patients with severe TBI in the neurointensive care unit. The correlation between the CerOx measurements and the jugular bulb venous measurements of oxygen saturation indicate that the CerOx may be able to provide an estimation of cerebral oxygenation status in a noninvasive manner.

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José E. Cohen, Gustavo Rajz, Eyal Itshayek, Yigal Shoshan, Felix Umansky and John M. Gomori

✓ Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare complications of closed and penetrating head injuries and may also be related to a variety of neurosurgical procedures. The primary goals in the treatment of patients harboring these lesions are early identification and intervention to prevent bleeding. Traumatic aneurysms are fragile, prone to rupture, and represent a challenging subset of vascular lesions for either surgery or endovascular therapy. Surgical approaches to aneurysms located at the pericallosal arteries are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality than approaches to other supratentorial aneurysms. Current endovascular treatment most often involves occlusion of the parent artery with the potential of added morbidity. The authors present their experience in the endovascular management of traumatic and iatrogenic aneurysms of the pericallosal artery achieved by primary coil embolization with parent vessel preservation. For patients harboring traumatic pericallosal aneurysms with favorable anatomical characteristics, in which the morbidity caused by parent vessel occlusion is not acceptable, endosaccular coil placement may be a valuable option.

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Reuben R. Shamir, Moti Freiman, Leo Joskowicz, Sergey Spektor and Yigal Shoshan

Object

Surface-based registration (SBR) with facial surface scans has been proposed as an alternative for the commonly used fiducial-based registration in image-guided neurosurgery. Recent studies comparing the accuracy of SBR and fiducial-based registration have been based on a few targets located on the head surface rather than inside the brain and have yielded contradictory conclusions. Moreover, no visual feedback is provided with either method to inform the surgeon about the estimated target registration error (TRE) at various target locations. The goals in the present study were: 1) to quantify the SBR error in a clinical setup, 2) to estimate the targeting error for many target locations inside the brain, and 3) to create a map of the estimated TRE values superimposed on a patient's head image.

Methods

The authors randomly selected 12 patients (8 supine and 4 in a lateral position) who underwent neurosurgery with a commercial navigation system. Intraoperatively, scans of the patients' faces were acquired using a fast 3D surface scanner and aligned with their preoperative MR or CT head image. In the laboratory, the SBR accuracy was measured on the facial zone and estimated at various intracranial target locations. Contours related to different TREs were superimposed on the patient's head image and informed the surgeon about the expected anisotropic error distribution.

Results

The mean surface registration error in the face zone was 0.9 ± 0.35 mm. The mean estimated TREs for targets located 60, 105, and 150 mm from the facial surface were 2.0, 3.2, and 4.5 mm, respectively. There was no difference in the estimated TRE between the lateral and supine positions. The entire registration procedure, including positioning of the scanner, surface data acquisition, and the registration computation usually required < 5 minutes.

Conclusions

Surface-based registration accuracy is better in the face and frontal zones, and error increases as the target location lies further from the face. Visualization of the anisotropic TRE distribution may help the surgeon to make clinical decisions. The observed and estimated accuracies and the intraoperative registration time show that SBR using the fast surface scanner is practical and feasible in a clinical setup.

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Moshe Attia, Felix Umansky, Iddo Paldor, Shlomo Dotan, Yigal Shoshan and Sergey Spektor

Object

Surgery for giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas that invade vital neurovascular structures surrounding the anterior clinoid process is challenging. The authors present their skull base technique for the treatment of giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas, defined here as globular tumors with a maximum diameter of 5 cm or larger, centered around the anterior clinoid process, which is usually hyperostotic.

Methods

Between 2000 and 2010, the authors performed 23 surgeries in 22 patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas. They used a skull base approach with extradural unroofing of the optic canal, extradural clinoidectomy (Dolenc technique), transdural debulking of the tumor, early optic nerve decompression, and early identification and control of key neurovascular structures.

Results

The mean age at surgery was 53.8 years. The mean tumor diameter was 59.2 mm (range 50–85 mm) with cavernous sinus involvement in 59.1% (13 of 22 patients). The tumor involved the prechiasmatic segment of the optic nerve in all patients, invaded the optic canal in 77.3% (17 of 22 patients), and caused visual impairment in 86.4% (19 of 22 patients). Total resection (Simpson Grade I or II) was achieved in 30.4% of surgeries (7 of 23); subtotal and partial resections were each achieved in 34.8% of surgeries (8 of 23). The main factor precluding total removal was cavernous sinus involvement. There were no deaths. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 4.8 (median 5) at a mean of 56 months of follow-up. Vision improved in 66.7% (12 of 18 patients) with consecutive neuroophthalmological examinations, was stable in 22.2% (4 of 18), and deteriorated in 11.1% (2 of 18). New deficits in cranial nerve III or IV remained after 8.7% of surgeries (2 of 23).

Conclusions

This modified surgical protocol has provided both a good extent of resection and a good neurological and visual outcome in patients with giant anterior clinoidal meningiomas.

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Amit Keret, Odeya Bennett-Back, Guy Rosenthal, Tal Gilboa, Moatasim Shweiki, Yigal Shoshan and Mony Benifla

OBJECTIVE

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The true incidence of PTE in children is still uncertain, because most research has been based primarily on adults. This study aimed to determine the true incidence of PTE in a pediatric population with mild TBI (MTBI) and to identify risk factors for the development of epileptic events.

METHODS

Data were collected from electronic medical records of children 0–17 years of age, who were admitted to a single medical center between 2007 and 2009 with a diagnosis of MTBI. This prospective research consisted of a telephone survey between 2015 and 2016 of children or their caregivers, querying for information about epileptic episodes and current seizure and neurological status. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of epilepsy following TBI, which was defined as ≥ 2 unprovoked seizure episodes. Posttraumatic seizure (PTS) was defined as a single, nonrecurrent convulsive episode that occurred > 24 hours following injury. Seizures within 24 hours of the injury were defined as immediate PTS.

RESULTS

Of 290 children eligible for this study, 191 of them or their caregivers were reached by telephone survey and were included in the analysis. Most injuries (80.6%) were due to falls. Six children had immediate PTS. All children underwent CT imaging; of them, 72.8% demonstrated fractures and 10.5% did not demonstrate acute findings. The mean follow-up was 7.4 years. Seven children (3.7%) experienced PTS; of them, 6 (85.7%) developed epilepsy and 3 (42.9%) developed intractable epilepsy. The overall incidence of epilepsy and intractable epilepsy in this cohort was 3.1% and 1.6%, respectively. None of the children who had immediate PTS developed epilepsy. Children who developed epilepsy spent an average of 2 extra days in the hospital at the time of the injury. The mean time between trauma and onset of seizures was 3.1 years. Immediate PTS was not correlated with PTE.

CONCLUSIONS

In this analysis of data from medical records and long-term follow-up, MTBI was found to confer increased risk for the development of PTE and intractable PTE, of 4.5 and 8 times higher, respectively. As has been established in adults, these findings confirm that MTBI increases the risk for PTE in the pediatric population.

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James J. Evans, Sin-Soo Jeun, Joung H. Lee, Jyoti A. Harwalkar, Yigal Shoshan, John K. Cowell and Mladen Golubic

Object. The neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) gene is the only tumor suppressor gene that has been clearly implicated in the development of benign meningiomas. Interestingly, previous data obtained by the authors indicate that reduced NF2 protein expression seldom occurs in meningothelial meningiomas, the most common histological type of meningioma. The goal of the current study was to explore further the hypothesis of NF2 gene-independent tumorigenesis of meningothelial meningiomas.

Methods. The authors performed a mutational analysis of all 17 exons of the NF2 gene by using single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). In addition, expression levels of the NF2 protein and (µ-calpain, a protease suggested to inactivate the NF2 protein, were determined by immunoblotting analysis of 27 meningiomas (20 meningothelial and seven nonmeningothelial). Mutations of the NF2 gene were found in only one (5%) of 20 meningothelial meningiomas and three (43%) of seven nonmeningothelial tumors (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.042). The levels of NF2 protein were severely reduced in six (28.5%) of 21 meningothelial meningiomas, in contrast to six (86%) of seven nonmeningothelial meningiomas (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.023). Activation of (µ-calpain did not correlate with the status of NF2 protein expression in the meningiomas analyzed, demonstrating that (µ-calpain activation does not account for the loss of NF2 protein in meningiomas with apparently normal NF2 genes.

Conclusions. These results clearly demonstrate that NF2 gene mutations and decreased NF2 protein expression rarely occur in meningothelial meningiomas compared with other histological types of meningiomas. The clinical behavior of meningothelial meningiomas, however, is similar to that of other benign meningiomas. It is likely, therefore, that the tumorigenesis of meningothelial meningiomas is the result of deleterious alterations of genes that have final phenotypical effects similar to inactivation of the NF2 gene.