Randy S. D’Amico, Justin A. Neira, Jonathan Yun, Nikita G. Alexiades, Matei Banu, Zachary K. Englander, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Timothy H. Ung, Robert J. Rothrock, Alexander Romanov, Xiaotao Guo, Binsheng Zhao, Adam M. Sonabend, Peter Canoll and Jeffrey N. Bruce
Intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been limited to short durations due to a reliance on externalized catheters. Preclinical studies investigating topotecan (TPT) CED for glioma have suggested that prolonged infusion improves survival. Internalized pump-catheter systems may facilitate chronic infusion. The authors describe the safety and utility of long-term TPT CED in a porcine model and correlation of drug distribution through coinfusion of gadolinium.
Fully internalized CED pump-catheter systems were implanted in 12 pigs. Infusion algorithms featuring variable infusion schedules, flow rates, and concentrations of a mixture of TPT and gadolinium were characterized over increasing intervals from 4 to 32 days. Therapy distribution was measured using gadolinium signal on MRI as a surrogate. A 9-point neurobehavioral scale (NBS) was used to identify side effects.
All animals tolerated infusion without serious adverse events. The average NBS score was 8.99. The average maximum volume of distribution (Vdmax) in chronically infused animals was 11.30 mL and represented 32.73% of the ipsilateral cerebral hemispheric volume. Vdmax was achieved early during infusions and remained relatively stable despite a slight decline as the infusion reached steady state. Novel tissue TPT concentrations measured by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy correlated with gadolinium signal intensity on MRI (p = 0.0078).
Prolonged TPT-gadolinium CED via an internalized system is safe and well tolerated and can achieve a large Vdmax, as well as maintain a stable Vd for up to 32 days. Gadolinium provides an identifiable surrogate for measuring drug distribution. Extended CED is potentially a broadly applicable and safe therapeutic option in select patients.
Justin A. Neira, Timothy H. Ung, Jennifer S. Sims, Hani R. Malone, Daniel S. Chow, Jorge L. Samanamud, George J. Zanazzi, Xiaotao Guo, Stephen G. Bowden, Binsheng Zhao, Sameer A. Sheth, Guy M. McKhann II, Michael B. Sisti, Peter Canoll, Randy S. D'Amico and Jeffrey N. Bruce
Extent of resection is an important prognostic factor in patients undergoing surgery for glioblastoma (GBM). Recent evidence suggests that intravenously administered fluorescein sodium associates with tumor tissue, facilitating safe maximal resection of GBM. In this study, the authors evaluate the safety and utility of intraoperative fluorescein guidance for the prediction of histopathological alteration both in the contrast-enhancing (CE) regions, where this relationship has been established, and into the non-CE (NCE), diffusely infiltrated margins.
Thirty-two patients received fluorescein sodium (3 mg/kg) intravenously prior to resection. Fluorescence was intraoperatively visualized using a Zeiss Pentero surgical microscope equipped with a YELLOW 560 filter. Stereotactically localized biopsy specimens were acquired from CE and NCE regions based on preoperative MRI in conjunction with neuronavigation. The fluorescence intensity of these specimens was subjectively classified in real time with subsequent quantitative image analysis, histopathological evaluation of localized biopsy specimens, and radiological volumetric assessment of the extent of resection.
Bright fluorescence was observed in all GBMs and localized to the CE regions and portions of the NCE margins of the tumors, thus serving as a visual guide during resection. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 84% of the patients with an average resected volume of 95%, and this rate was higher among patients for whom GTR was the surgical goal (GTR achieved in 93.1% of patients, average resected volume of 99.7%). Intraoperative fluorescein staining correlated with histopathological alteration in both CE and NCE regions, with positive predictive values by subjective fluorescence evaluation greater than 96% in NCE regions.
Intraoperative administration of fluorescein provides an easily visualized marker for glioma pathology in both CE and NCE regions of GBM. These findings support the use of fluorescein as a microsurgical adjunct for guiding GBM resection to facilitate safe maximal removal.