Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22 items for

  • Author or Editor: Arthur L. Day x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment

A clinical and anatomical analysis

Arthur L. Day

✓ The clinical, radiographic, and anatomical features in 80 patients with ophthalmic segment aneurysms were reviewed, and were categorized according to a presumed origin related to the ophthalmic (41 cases) or superior hypophyseal (39 cases) arteries. There was a marked female predominance (7:1) and high incidence of multiple aneurysms (45%) within this population. Clinical presentations included subarachnoid hemorrhage in 23 cases (29%) and visual deficits in 24 (30%); five patients exhibited both hemorrhage and visual loss. Twenty-eight aneurysms were incidentally identified.

Ophthalmic artery aneurysms arose from the internal carotid artery (ICA) just distal to the ophthalmic artery, pointed superiorly or superomedially, and (when large) deflected the carotid artery posteriorly and inferiorly, closing the siphon. Abnormalities relating to vision were not identified until the aneurysm realized giant proportions. The optic nerve was typically displaced superomedially, which restricted contralateral extension until late in the clinical course; unilateral nasal field loss was seen in 12 patients. Nine patients had bilateral ophthalmic artery aneurysms which were often clipped via a unilateral craniotomy.

Superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms arose just above the dural ring from the medial bend of the ICA, at the site of perforator origin to the superior aspect of the hypophysis, and had no direct association with the ophthalmic artery. The carotid artery was usually located lateral or superolateral relative to the aneurysm. These lesions could extend medially beneath the chiasm (suprasellar variant), producing a clinical and computerized tomography picture similar to a pituitary adenoma, or they could extend ventrally to burrow beneath the anterior clinoid process (paraclinoid variant).

Preoperative categorization of these lesions according to their likely branch of origin provides excellent correlation with visual deficits and operative findings, and has allowed the author to clip 52 of 54 lesions, with very low operative or visual morbidity.

Restricted access

Arthur L. Day

✓ The clinical, angiographic, and surgical characteristics of 31 patients with high-grade middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis or occlusion (jointly termed “MCA obstructions”) referred for cerebral revascularization by extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass are reviewed. Overall, 12 (66%) of the 18 patients with stenosis and all 13 (100%) of those with complete occlusion experienced clinically evident infarctions. Twenty-five of these patients underwent arteriography at least twice during their clinical course. Eleven (44%) demonstrated significant improvement in flow or complete resolution of obstruction on their second study. Ten of these 11 were patients in whom the initial arteriography was done within 2 weeks of symptom onset. Five other patients with stenosis exhibited obstruction that was worse on serial arteriography without surgical intervention.

The high incidence of resolution of MCA obstructions indicates that surgery should not be contemplated in most instances until delayed arteriography has been performed, at least 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Proximal embolic sources, such as the cervical carotid bifurcation, should receive carotid endarterectomy and repeat arteriography in appropriate patients prior to consideration of EC-IC bypass. Persistent high-grade MCA obstructions are thereafter potential candidates for EC-IC bypass, since leptomeningeal collateral vessels are marginal in their protective ability. Overall, of 15 patients who underwent an EC-IC bypass procedure, 14 were either stable or improved postoperatively, and 13 have been free of any further ischemic events without the use of major anticoagulant agents.

Restricted access

Patrick G. Ryan and Arthur L. Day

✓ A patient with known internal carotid artery occlusion developed transient ischemic attacks in the distribution of the occluded vessel. Arteriography demonstrated a thrombus clearly originating from the internal carotid artery stump, which was unassociated with significantly stenotic atherosclerotic disease of the ipsilateral common or external carotid arteries. Stump angioplasty and endarterectomy led to complete and sustained cessation of further symptoms.

Full access

Marc R. Mayberg and Arthur L. Day

Restricted access

Roberto C. Heros

Restricted access
Restricted access

Roberto C. Heros

Restricted access

John Guy, Mark Sherwood and Arthur L. Day

✓ In two patients with traumatic optic neuropathy progressive visual loss was reversed by surgical decompression of the optic nerve sheath. The first patient with hemorrhage beneath the optic nerve sheath had progressive loss of vision from counting fingers to no light perception within 24 hours after the injury. Surgical evacuation of the hematoma improved visual acuity to 8/30. The second patient had progressive visual loss from 20/20 to 20/400 within the 1st week after injury. Drainage of an arachnoid cyst of the optic nerve sheath improved visual acuity to 20/25. Computerized axial tomography disclosed the hemorrhage in the first case and enlargement of the optic nerve sheath in the second. While the management of traumatic optic neuropathy is controversial, surgical intervention for an arachnoid cyst and hematoma involving the optic nerve is clearly beneficial.

Full access

Ian F. Dunn, Gavin Dunn and Arthur L. Day

✓ Neurosurgeons in the last half-century have had considerable influence on modern-day athletics. In this article, the authors address the contributions made by neurosurgeons as clinician–scientists, particularly as these relate to the understanding and reduction of the incidence and severity of injury to the nervous system during athletic competition. American football has been a proving ground for the ability of the craniospinal axis to withstand and, in unfortunate cases, succumb to tremendous impact forces; in this way, it has served as a model for translational research and was the arena in which Dr. Richard Schneider made his greatest contributions to sports neurosurgery. Therefore, in his memory and in the spirit of the Schneider lectureship, the authors outline the notable contribution to modern-day athletics made by neurosurgeons as it applies to American football. Neurosurgeons have had considerable influence on reducing injury severity, and this cause has been championed by a few notable individuals whose efforts are discussed herein.

Full access

Ian F. Dunn, Mark R. Proctor and Arthur L. Day

✓Lumbar spine injuries in athletes are not uncommon and usually take the form of a mild muscle strain or sprain. More severe injuries sustained by athletes include disc herniations, spondylolistheses, and various types of fracture. The recognition and management of these injuries in athletes involve the additional consideration that to return to play, the lumbar spine must be able to withstand forces similar to those that were injurious. The authors consider common lumbar spine injuries in athletes and discuss management principles for neurosurgeons that are relevant to this population.