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Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto, Paul A. Gardner, and Carl H. Snyderman

The authors present the technical and anatomical nuances needed to perform an endoscopic endonasal removal of a tuberculum sellae meningioma. The patient is a 47-year-old female with headaches and an incidental finding of a small tuberculum sellae meningioma with no vascular encasement, no optic canal invasion, but mild inferior to superior compression of the cisternal segment of the left optic nerve. Neuroophthalmology assessment revealed no visual defects. Treatment options included clinical observation with imaging follow-up studies, radiosurgery, and resection. The patient elected to undergo surgical removal and an endonasal endoscopic approach was the preferred surgical option.

Preoperative radiological studies showed the presence of an osseous ring between the left middle and anterior clinoids, the so-called carotico-clinoidal ring. The surgical implications of this finding and its management are illustrated. The surgical anatomy of the suprasellar region is reviewed, including concepts such as the chiasmatic sulcus and limbus sphenoidale, medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses, and the paraclinoidal and supraclinoidal segments of the internal carotid artery. Emphasis is made in the importance of exposing the distal dural ring of the internal carotid artery and the precanalicular segment of the optic nerve for adequate intradural dissection. The endonasal route allows for early coagulation of the tumor meningeal supply and extensive resection of dural attachments, and importantly, provides an inferior to superior access to the infrachiasmatic region that facilitates complete tumor removal without any manipulation of the optic nerve. The lateral limit of dural removal is formed by the distal dural ring, which is gently coagulated after the tumor is resected. A 45° scope is used to inspect for any residual tumor, in particular at the entrance of the optic nerve into the optic canal and at the most anterior margin of the exposure (limbus sphenoidale). The steps for reconstruction are detailed and include intradural placement of dural substitute and extradural placement of the nasoseptal flap. The nuances for proper harvesting, positioning, and reinforcement of the flap are described. No lumbar drain was used.

The patient had an uneventful recovery with no CSF leak or any other complications. Imaging follow-up at 6 months showed complete removal of the tumor. The patient had no sinonasal or neurological symptoms, and olfaction was fully preserved.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/kkuV-yyEHMg.

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Matthew J. Tormenti, Alessandro Paluzzi, Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H. Snyderman, and Paul A. Gardner

The authors present a fully endoscopic endonasal repair of a spontaneous CSF leak caused by a defect in the anterior fossa floor. Patients were positioned supine in a Mayfield headholder in slight extension. A complete ethmoidectomy was performed to expose the defect. The middle turbinate was removed to increase visualization and allow for more working room. The defect was identified and exposed. A nasoseptal flap was raised and placed over the defect. A free-mucosal graft fashioned from the removed middle turbinate was placed on the nasoseptal donor site.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/gAN2cvQVXCE.

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Maria Koutourousiou, Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda, Eric W. Wang, Carl H. Snyderman, M.B.A., and Paul A. Gardner

Object

Recently, endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has been introduced in the management of skull base tumors, with constantly improving outcomes and increasing indications. The authors retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of EES in the management of olfactory groove meningiomas.

Methods

Between February 2003 and December 2012, 50 patients (64% female) with olfactory groove meningiomas underwent EES at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors present the results of EES and analyze the resection rates, clinical outcome, complications, and limitations of this approach.

Results

Forty-four patients presented with primary tumors, whereas six were previously treated elsewhere. The patients’ mean age was 57.1 years (range 27–88 years). Clinical presentation included altered mental status (36%), visual loss (30%), headache (24%), and seizures (20%). The mean maximum tumor diameter was 41.6 mm (range 18–80 mm). All patients underwent EES, which was performed in stages in 18 giant tumors. Complete tumor resection (Simpson Grade I) was achieved in 66.7% of the 45 patients in whom it was the goal, and 13 (28.9%) had near-total resection (> 95% of the tumor). Tumor size, calcification, and absence of cortical cuff from vasculature were significant factors that influenced the degree of resection (p = 0.002, p = 0.024, and p = 0.028, respectively). Tumor residual was usually at the most lateral and anterior tumor margins.

Following EES, mental status was improved or normalized in 77.8% of the cases, vision was improved or restored in 86.7 %, and headaches resolved in 83.3 %. There was no postoperative deterioration of presenting symptoms. Complications were increased in tumors > 40 mm and included CSF leakage (30%), which was significantly associated with lobular tumor configuration (p = 0.048); pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis, more commonly in elderly patients (20%); sinus infections (10%); and delayed abscess months or years after EES (6%). One patient had an intraoperative vascular injury resulting in transient hemiparesis (2%). There were no perioperative deaths. During a mean follow-up period of 32 months (median 22 months, range 1–115 months), 1 patient underwent repeat EES for tumor regrowth.

Conclusions

Endoscopic endonasal surgery has shown good clinical outcomes regardless of patient age, previous treatment, or tumor characteristics. Tumor size > 40 mm, calcification, and absence of cortical vascular cuff limit GTR with EES; in addition, large tumors are associated with increased postoperative complications. Significant lateral and anterior dural involvement may represent indications for using traditional craniotomies for the management of these tumors. Postoperative CSF leakage remains a problem that necessitates innovations in EES reconstruction techniques.