The authors aimed to determine whether differences exist in presentation and natural history when comparing Asian patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) to those of other ethnicities in North America.
A database of 137 patients with MMD presenting to their institution between 1994 and 2015 was reviewed. Baseline characteristics and outcome variables, including stroke and functional outcome, were compared between Asian and non-Asian patients. Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and adjusted Cox regression models were used to compare stroke-free survival and stroke hazard after diagnosis among hemispheres of both racial groups. The analysis was stratified by age group, and censoring was performed until last follow-up or at the time of surgery. Because the relative rate of stroke changed between Asian and non-Asian adults after 1.5 years of follow-up, a time-segmented analysis focusing on the period 1.5 years after diagnosis was performed.
The cohort comprised 23% (31/137) Asian and 77% (106/137) non-Asian patients with MMD with a bimodal age distribution. Non-Asian patients had a higher prevalence of increased BMI (p = 0.02) and smoking (p = 0.04). Among patients who presented with stroke (n = 90), hemorrhage was significantly more common among Asians (p = 0.02). The natural history analysis included 250 hemispheres: 67 pediatric and 183 adult hemispheres. The overall mean follow-up duration since diagnosis was 3.3 years. Among adults, Asian patients had a higher incidence of stroke (8.0 per 100 person-years vs 3.0 per 100 person-years) over a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, but results were not statistically significant (p = 0.45). In the period beginning 1.5 years after diagnosis, Asian adults had a significantly higher hazard of stroke over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, while controlling for sex, hypertension, and stroke before diagnosis (hazard ratio 8.8, p = 0.02). Among pediatric patients, Asians also had a higher stroke incidence (10.0 per 100 person-years vs 3.5 per 100 person-years) over a mean follow-up of 3.2 years; however, results did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.40). Functional outcome was similar between both ethnic groups at last follow-up (p = 0.57).
This study suggests a comparatively more progressive course of MMD in Asians. Further studies are required to fully characterize the phenotypic distinctions between different races and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.