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Carrie E. Andrews, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Evan M. Fitchett, Fadi Al Saiegh, Michael J. Lang, Victor M. Romo, Nabeel Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and M. Reid Gooch

OBJECTIVE

Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is now the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large-vessel occlusion, but there remains a question of whether elderly patients benefit from this procedure to the same degree as the younger populations enrolled in the seminal trials on MT. The authors compared outcomes after MT of patients 80–89 and ≥ 90 years old with AIS to those of younger patients.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed records of patients undergoing MT at their institution to examine stroke severity, comorbid conditions, medical management, recanalization results, and clinical outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare patients < 80 years, 80–89 years, and ≥ 90 years old.

RESULTS

All groups had similar rates of comorbid disease and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, and stroke severity did not differ significantly between groups. Elderly patients had equivalent recanalization outcomes, with similar rates of readmission, 30-day mortality, and hospital-associated complications. These patients were more likely to have poor clinical outcome on discharge, as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3–6, but this difference was not significant when controlled for stroke severity, tPA administration, and recanalization results.

CONCLUSIONS

Octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians with AIS have similar rates of mortality, hospital readmission, and hospital-associated complications as younger patients after MT. Elderly patients also have the capacity to achieve good functional outcome after MT, but this potential is moderated by stroke severity and success of treatment.

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Elad I. Levy, Stephan A. Munich, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Peter Kan and B. Gregory Thompson

Remarkable developments in the field of endovascular neurosurgery have been witnessed in the last decade. The success of endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke treatment is now irrefutable, making it an accepted standard of care. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms is no longer limited to primary coiling but now includes options such as stent or balloon assistance and flow diversion and applications utilizing neck reconstruction, intrasaccular, and bifurcation-specific devices. Balloons, liquid embolic agents, and flow-directed catheters have revolutionized the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. The ongoing development of endovascular tools has led to novel and expanding approaches (for example, transvenous arteriovenous malformation embolization and transradial access). With improved technology, transposterior communicating artery access and other endovascular strategies are being applied successfully across the anterior and posterior circulations and to lesions once deemed only surgically approachable. Yet, we would be remiss to attribute the successes of endovascular strategies only to the development of their tools. Improvements in both noninvasive and angiographic imaging (such as three-dimensional road map guidance) have provided a greater understanding of pathologic entities and allowed the pursuit of endovascular cures.

In this issue of Neurosurgical Focus, we present a wide range of endovascular strategies for a variety of neurovascular pathologies. We hope this video supplement will not only demonstrate the applicability of tried-and-true endovascular strategies to difficult clinical situations but also highlight new and developing endovascular technologies. We thank the authors for their outstanding contributions.

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Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

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Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

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Elias Atallah, Hassan Saad, Kimon Bekelis, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Jorge Eller, David Stidd, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

Thromboembolic complications continue to be encountered with Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs) despite routine clopidogrel/aspirin antiplatelet therapy. This study examined the safety and efficacy of prasugrel in the management of clopidogrel-resistant patients treated for cerebral aneurysms.

METHODS

Four hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients were identified between January 2011 and May 2016. Patients allergic, or having less than 30% platelet inhibition, to a daily 75-mg dose of clopidogrel received 10 mg of prasugrel daily (n = 20) or 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily (n = 2). The mean (± SD) follow-up duration was 15.8 ± 12.4 months. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score registered before discharge and at each follow-up visit. To control confounding, multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression and propensity score conditioning were used.

RESULTS

Twenty-six (5.9%) of 437 patients presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The mean patient age was 56.3 years, and 62 were women (14.2%). One of the 7 patients lost to follow-up received prasugrel. One patient was allergic to clopidogrel and prasugrel simultaneously. All patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor (n = 22) had an mRS score ≤ 2 on their latest follow-up visit (mean score 0.67 ± 1.15). In a multivariate analysis, clopidogrel did not affect the mRS score on last follow-up (p = 0.14). Multivariable logistic regression showed that clopidogrel was not associated with an increased long-term recurrence rate (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01–2.70, p = 0.21), an increased thromboembolic complication rate (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.12–1.67, p = 0.24), or an increased hemorrhagic event rate (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.91–1.64, p = 0.20). None of the patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor died or suffered a long-term recurrence or a hemorrhagic event; only 1 patient suffered from mild aphasia subsequent to a thromboembolic event. Three patients taking clopidogrel died during the study: 2 from acute SAH and 1 from intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Clopidogrel was not associated with an increased mortality rate (OR 2.18, 95% CI 0.11–43.27, p = 0.61). The same associations were present in propensity score–adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS

In a cohort of patients treated with PEDs, prasugrel (10 mg/day) was a safe alternative to clopidogrel-resistant or clopidogrel-allergic patients, or nonresponders.

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Adam S. Arthur, Philipp Taussky, Min S. Park, Michael F. Stiefel and Robert H. Rosenwasser

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Edison P. Valle-Giler, Elias Atallah, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a very important tool in the treatment of nonruptured cerebral aneurysms. However, a patient’s difficult anatomy or vascular stenosis may affect the device delivery. The purpose of this article was to describe an alternate technique for PED deployment when ipsilateral anatomy is not amenable for catheter navigation.

A 44-year-old woman with a symptomatic 6-mm right superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm and a known history of right internal carotid artery dissection presented for PED treatment of her aneurysm. An angiogram showed persistence of the arterial dissection with luminal stenosis after 6 months of dual antiplatelet treatment. The contralateral internal carotid artery was catheterized and the PED was deployed via a transcirculation approach, using the anterior communicating artery. Transcirculation deployment of a PED is a viable option when ipsilateral anatomy is difficult or contraindicated for this treatment.

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Badih Daou, Edison P. Valle-Giler, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Ryan Hebert and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become an effective treatment strategy for some cerebral aneurysms. Concerns regarding the patency of branch arteries have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) following treatment of PCoA aneurysms using the PED.

METHODS

All patients with PCoA aneurysms treated with the PED who had angiographic follow-up were retrospectively identified. The patency of the PCoA at follow-up was evaluated by 2 authors who were not involved in the intervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the following: 1) PCoA patency versus no or diminished flow, and 2) PCoA patency and diminished flow versus PCoA occlusion.

RESULTS

Thirty patients with an angiographic follow-up of 6 months were included. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 25 patients (83.3%). The PCoA was patent in 7 patients (23.3%), had diminished flow in 7 patients (23.3%), and was occluded in 16 patients (53.3%). In the univariate analysis of outcome, there was a trend for aneurysms with incomplete occlusion, aneurysms not previously treated, those with presence of a fetal PCoA, and those with an artery coming from the aneurysm to have higher odds of the PCoA remaining patent. In univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with outcome, fetal PCoA and presence of an artery coming from the aneurysm were associated with the PCoA remaining open with or without diminished flow. No patients had symptoms related to PCoA occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

Occlusion and diminished flow through the PCoA is common following PED treatment of PCoA aneurysms. However, it is clinically insignificant in most cases.

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Badih Daou, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Guilherme Barros, Lina Ya'qoub, John Do, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

With the increasing number of aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling, more recurrences are being encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical clipping in the treatment of recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms and to identify risk factors that can affect the outcomes of this procedure.

METHODS

One hundred eleven patients with recurrent aneurysms whose lesions were managed by surgical clipping between January 2002 and October 2014 were identified. The rates of aneurysm occlusion, retreatment, complications, and good clinical outcome were retrospectively determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with these outcomes.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 50.5 years, the mean aneurysm size was 7 mm, and 97.3% of aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Complete aneurysm occlusion, as assessed by intraoperative angiography, was achieved in 97.3% of aneurysms (108 of 111 patients). Among patients, 1.8% (2 of 111 patients) had a recurrence after clipping. Retreatment was required in 4.5% of patients (5 of 111) after clipping. Major complications were observed in 8% of patients and mortality in 2.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good clinical outcome. Aneurysm size (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.08–1.7; p = 0.009) and location in the posterior circulation were significantly associated with higher complications. All 3 patients who had coil extraction experienced a postoperative stroke. Aneurysm size (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02–1.45; p = 0.025) and higher number of interventions prior to clipping (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3–21.4; p = 0.019) were significant predictors of poor outcome. An aneurysm size > 7 mm was a significant predictor of incomplete obliteration and retreatment (p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical clipping is safe and effective in treating recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysm size, location, and number of previous coiling procedures are important factors to consider in the management of these aneurysms.

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Badih Daou, Christine Hammer, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries can result in the development of aneurysmal dilations. These dissecting pseudoaneurysms can enlarge and cause symptoms. The objective of this study is to provide insight into the progression of dissecting pseudoaneurysms and the treatments required to manage them.

METHODS

A review of the electronic medical records was conducted to detect patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissection. An imaging review was conducted to identify patients with dissecting pseudoaneurysms. One hundred twelve patients with 120 dissecting pseudoaneurysms were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with undergoing further interventions other than medical treatment, pseudoaneurysm enlargement, pseudoaneurysms resulting in ischemic and nonischemic symptoms, and clinical outcome.

RESULTS

Overall, 18.3% of pseudoaneurysms were intracranial and 81.7% were extracranial, and the average size was 7.3 mm. The mean follow-up time was 29.3 months; 3.3% of patients had a recurrent transient ischemic attack, no patients had a recurrent stroke, and 14.2% of patients had recurrence of nonischemic symptoms (headache, neck pain, Horner syndrome, or cranial nerve palsy). Follow-up imaging demonstrated that 13.8% of pseudoaneurysms had enlarged, 30.2% had healed, and 56% had remained stable. In total, 20.8% of patients had an intervention other than medical treatment. Interventions included stenting, coiling, flow diversion, and clipping. Predictors of intervention included increasing size, size > 10 mm, location in the C2 (petrous) segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), younger age, hyperlipidemia, pseudoaneurysm enlargement, and any symptom development. Significant predictors of enlargement included smoking, history of trauma, C2 location, hyperlipidemia, and larger initial pseudoaneurysm size. Predictors of pseudoaneurysm resulting in recurrent ischemic and nonischemic symptoms included increasing size and location in the petrous segment of the ICA. Smoking was a predictor of unfavorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Dissecting pseudoaneurysms have a benign course and most will not cause symptoms or enlarge on follow-up. Medical treatment can be a sufficient, initial treatment for dissecting pseudoaneurysms.