Jens Gempt, Annette Förschler, Niels Buchmann, Haiko Pape, Yu-Mi Ryang, Sandro M. Krieg, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer and Florian Ringel
The aim of surgical treatment of glioma is the complete resection of tumor tissue with preservation of neurological function. Inclusion of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the postoperative MRI protocol could improve the delineation of ischemia-associated postoperative neurological deficits. The present study aims to assess the incidence of infarctions following resection of newly diagnosed gliomas in comparison with recurrent gliomas and the influence on neurological function.
Patients who underwent glioma resection for newly diagnosed or recurrent gliomas had early postoperative MRI, including DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Postoperative areas of restricted diffusion were classified as arterial territorial infarctions, terminal branch infarctions, or venous infarctions. Tumor entity, location, and neurological function were recorded.
New postoperative ischemic lesions were identified in 26 (31%) of 84 patients with newly diagnosed gliomas and 20 (80%) of 25 patients with recurrent gliomas (p < 0.01). New permanent and transient neurological deficits were more frequent in patients with recurrent gliomas than in patients with newly diagnosed tumors. Patients with neurological deficits had a significantly higher rate of ischemic lesions.
Postoperative infarctions occur frequently in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent gliomas and do have an impact on postoperative neurological function. In this patient cohort there was a higher risk for ischemic lesions and for deterioration of neurological function after resection of recurrent tumors. Radiogenic and postoperative tissue changes could contribute to the higher risk of an ischemic infarction in patients with recurrent tumors.
Jens Gempt, Julia Gerhardt, Vivien Toth, Stefanie Hüttinger, Yu-Mi Ryang, Maria Wostrack, Sandro M. Krieg, Bernhard Meyer, Annette Förschler and Florian Ringel
Brain metastases occur in 10% to 40% of patients harboring cancer. In cases of neurosurgical metastasis resection, all postoperative neurological deterioration should be avoided. Reasons for postoperative deficits can be direct tissue damage due to resection, hemorrhage, venous congestive infarcts, or arterial ischemic events leading to tissue infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether postoperative ischemic infarctions occur in surgery for brain metastasis and to determine their influence on new postoperative neurological deficits.
Patients who underwent resection of brain metastases and had preoperative and early postoperative (within 48 hours) MRI scans, including diffusion-weighted imaging sequences and apparent diffusion coefficient maps, between January 2009 and May 2012 were included in this study. Clinical and histopathological data (histopathological results, pre- and postoperative neurological status, and previous tumor-specific therapy) were recorded.
One hundred twenty-two patients (56 male, 66 female) who underwent resection of brain metastases were included. The patients' mean age was 60 years (range 21–89 years). The mean time span from initial tumor diagnosis to resection of brain metastasis was 44 months (range 0–338 months). The mean preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status was 80% (exact mean 76% ± 17% [SD]), and the mean postoperative value was 80% (exact mean 78% ± 17%). Twelve (9.8%) of the 122 patients had postoperative permanent worsening of a neurological deficit or a new permanent neurological deficit; 44 (36.1%) of the 122 patients had postoperative ischemic lesions. When comparing patients with and without previous brain irradiation, 53.8% of patients with previous brain irradiation had ischemic lesions on postoperative imaging compared with 31.3% of patients without previous brain irradiation (p = 0.033). There was a significant association between ischemia and postoperative neurological status deterioration (transient or permanent); 13 (29.5%) of 44 patients with ischemic lesions had deterioration of their neurological status compared with 7 (9%) of the 78 patients who did not have ischemic lesions (p = 0.003).
This study demonstrates a high prevalence of vascular incidents in patients undergoing resection for metastatic brain disease. Patients harboring postoperative ischemic lesions detected by MRI have a higher rate of neurological deficits (transient or permanent). Patients who had previous irradiation therapy are at higher risk of developing postoperative ischemic lesions. A large number of postoperative neurological deficits are caused by ischemic incidents.
Jens Gempt, Sandro M. Krieg, Stefanie Hüttinger, Niels Buchmann, Yu-Mi Ryang, Ehab Shiban, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Annette Förschler and Florian Ringel
The aim of surgical glioma treatment is the complete resection of tumor tissue while preserving neurological function. Surgery-related neurological deficits arise from direct damage to the cortical or subcortical structures or from ischemia. The authors aimed to assess the incidence of resection-related ischemia of newly diagnosed or recurrent supratentorial gliomas and the sensitivity of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for detecting such ischemic events and their influence on neurological motor function.
Between January 2009 and December 2010, 70 patients with tumors in motor-eloquent brain areas underwent intraoperative MEP monitoring during glioma resection and were examined by early postoperative MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Postoperative areas of restricted diffusion were assessed by investigators blinded to the course of intraoperative MEPs and the neurological course.
Among the 70 enrolled patients, a MEP amplitude decline below 50% of the baseline level was observed in 21 patients (30%). Sixteen of these patients (76%) had ischemic lesions identified on postoperative MRI scans. Forty-nine patients (70%) showed no decline in MEP amplitude, and only 16 (33%) of these patients harbored ischemic lesions. Moreover, 9 (69%) of 13 patients with a permanent loss of MEP amplitude showed postoperative ischemic lesions. Factors that promoted the occurrence of postoperative infarction were previous radiotherapy and location of the tumor close to the central arteries.
Alterations in the MEP amplitude during tumor resection and postoperative ischemic lesions are associated with postoperative impairment of motor function. Rather than cortical or subcortical structural damage of eloquent brain tissue alone, peri- or postoperative ischemic lesions play a crucial role in the development of surgery-related motor deficits.