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Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Varun Puvanesarajah, Eric O. Klineberg, Daniel M. Sciubba, Michael P. Kelly, D. Kojo Hamilton, Virginie Lafage, Aaron J. Buckland, Peter G. Passias, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khaled M. Kebaish and the International Spine Study Group

T he incidence of scoliosis in the elderly has been reported to be from 30% to 68%. 25 , 27 Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is associated with high complication rates. 16 , 17 , 35 A recent study found that approximately 27% of patients with ASD experience at least one medical complication perioperatively. 33 High perioperative complication rates have been reported in elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) surgically treated for ASD and range from 37% to 71%. 1 , 10 , 30 , 32 A large proportion of the morbidity in the elderly is caused