Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 64 items for

  • By Author: Piepgras, David G. x
Clear All
Full access

Kelly B. Mahaney, Robert D. Brown Jr., Irene Meissner, David G. Piepgras, John Huston III, Jie Zhang and James C. Torner

Object

The aim of this study was to determine age-related differences in short-term (1-year) outcomes in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs).

Methods

Four thousand fifty-nine patients prospectively enrolled in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms were categorized into 3 groups by age at enrollment: < 50, 50–65, and > 65 years old. Outcomes assessed at 1 year included aneurysm rupture rates, combined morbidity and mortality from aneurysm procedure or hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality. Periprocedural morbidity, in-hospital morbidity, and poor neurological outcome on discharge (Rankin scale score of 3 or greater) were assessed in surgically and endovascularly treated groups. Univariate and multivariate associations of each outcome with age were tested.

Results

The risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage did not increase significantly with age. Procedural and in-hospital morbidity and mortality increased with age in patients treated with surgery, but remained relatively constant with increasing age with endovascular treatment. Poor neurological outcome from aneurysm- or procedure-related morbidity and mortality did not differ between management groups for patients 65 years old and younger, but was significantly higher in the surgical group for patients older than 65 years: 19.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.9%–24.4%), compared with 8.0% (95% CI 2.3%–13.6%) in the endovascular group and 4.2% (95% CI 2.3%–6.2%) in the observation group. All-cause mortality increased steadily with increasing age, but differed between treatment groups only in patients < 50 years of age, with the surgical group showing a survival advantage at 1 year.

Conclusions

Surgical treatment of UIAs appears to be safe, prevents 1-year hemorrhage, and may confer a survival benefit in patients < 50 years of age. However, surgery poses a significant risk of morbidity and death in patients > 65 years of age. Risk of endovascular treatment does not appear to increase with age. Risks and benefits of treatment in older patients should be carefully considered, and if treatment is deemed necessary for patients older than 65 years, endovascular treatment may be the best option.

Restricted access

Neeraj Kumar, Gary M. Miller, David G. Piepgras and Bahram Mokri

A source of bleeding is often not evident during the evaluation of patients with superficial siderosis of the CNS despite extensive imaging. An intraspinal fluid-filled collection of variable dimensions is frequently observed on spine MR imaging in patients with idiopathic superficial siderosis. A similar finding has also been reported in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypotension. The authors report on a patient with superficial siderosis and a longitudinally extensive intraspinal fluid-filled collection secondary to a dural tear. The patient had a history of low-pressure headaches. His spine MR imaging and spine CT suggested the possibility of an underlying vascular malformation, but none was found on angiography. Repair of the dural tear resulted in resolution of the intraspinal fluid collection and CSF abnormalities. The significance of the association between superficial siderosis and idiopathic intracranial hypotension, and potential therapeutic and pathophysiological implications, are the subject of this report.

Full access

Michelle J. Clarke, Todd A. Patrick, J. Bradley White, Harry J. Cloft, William E. Krauss, E. P. Lindell and David G. Piepgras

Object

Although nontraumatic spinal arteriovenous malformations and fistulas (AVMs and AVFs) restricted to the epidural space are rare, they can lead to significant neurological morbidity. Careful diagnostic imaging is essential to their detection and the delineation of the pathological anatomy. Aggressive endovascular and open operative treatment can provide arrest and reversal of neurological deficits.

Methods

The authors report on 6 cases of extradural AVMs/AVFs causing progressive myelopathy. Clinical findings, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and outcome are discussed. Special consideration is given to the anatomy of the lesions and the operative techniques used to treat them. A review of the literature concerning extradural vascular malformations is also presented.

Results

All 6 cases of extradural AVMs had an extradural fistulous location with intradural medullary venous drainage. These cases illustrate progressive myelopathy through cord venous congestion (hypertension) that can be caused by an extradural nidus or fistula. In 4 cases, a large epidural lake was identified on angiography. At surgery, the epidural lake was obliterated and medullary drainage interrupted. All patients had stabilization of their neurological deficits and successful obliteration of the AVM/AVF was obtained.

Conclusions

Extradural AVMs and AVFs are a poorly described entity with published clinical experience limited to sporadic case reports and small series. Although these lesions have a purely extradural location of arteriovenous shunting and early venous drainage, they can be responsible for acute and progressive neurological symptoms similar to those caused by their dural-based intradural counterparts. With careful imaging recognition of the pathological anatomy, surgical and endovascular techniques can be used for the treatment of extradural AVMs affording effective and durable obliteration with stabilization or reversal of neurological symptoms. Venous drainage directly correlates the pathologic mechanisms of presentation. Specific attention must be paid intraoperatively to the epidural lake common to both variants so that recurrence is avoided.

Restricted access

J. Bradley White, David G. Piepgras, Bernd W. Scheithauer and Joseph E. Parisi

Object

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is an uncommon but recognized initial presenting sign of both primary and metastatic brain tumors. The rate of tumor-related intracranial hemorrhage is variably reported from < 1 to 14.6%. Hemorrhage in primary gliomas occurs in 3.7–7.2% of gliomas, mainly in glioblastoma muliforme and oligodendroglioma with low-grade astrocytomas accounting for < 1%. Hemorrhage associated with pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) is only sporadically reported. The authors report on a series of patients in whom PAs presenting as hemorrhages prompted them to examine the incidence of bleeding in these tumors.

Methods

Cases involving a confirmed tissue diagnosis of PA from 1994–2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The authors included only patients with evidence of hemorrhage on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging seen prior to biopsy or resection and in the absence of trauma or other vascular pathological entities.

Results

In 138 patients with histologically proven PAs, the mean age at diagnosis was 23 years. In 11 patients (8%; 5 male and 6 female) there was evidence of hemorrhage at presentation. There were no locations more susceptible to hemorrhage than any other, although no bleeding occurred within the cerebellum. All but 1 patient was treated with a gross-total resection.

Conclusions

Hemorrhage in association with PAs likely results from the frequently observed abnormal vasculature in these tumors, occurs with a greater frequency than previously thought, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

Restricted access

Robert D. Ecker, Robert D. Brown Jr, Douglas A. Nichols, Robyn L. McClelland, Megan S. Reinalda, David G. Piepgras, Harry J. Cloft and David F. Kallmes

Object. Definitive data characterizing the safety and efficacy of carotid angioplasty with stent placement (CAS) for symptomatic, occlusive carotid artery (CA) disease require further refinements and standardization of techniques as well as large prospective studies on a par with the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). Despite the absence of such data, many surgeons have performed angioplasty and stent placement in patients with clinical or anatomical features known to add significant perioperative risk and capable of disqualifying the patients from participation in NASCET. There exists no cost analysis comparing high-risk endarterectomy with percutaneous angioplasty and stent insertion.

Methods. Forty-five patients (29 men and 16 women) with high-risk, symptomatic CA stenosis have been treated with CAS at the authors' institution since 1996. Indications for this procedure included symptomatic recurrent stenosis following CA endarterectomy (CEA), active coronary disease, high CA bifurcation, and severe medical comorbidities. A long-standing CEA computer database was screened for control patients with similar risk factors; 391 patients (276 men and 115 women) were identified. Actual cost data, duration of hospital stay, and relevant clinical data from the time of treatment until hospital discharge were collected in each patient. The median total cost of CAS was $10,628, whereas that for CEA was $10,148 (p = 0.495).

Conclusions. In patients with high-risk, NASCET-ineligible CA stenosis there was no overall statistically significant cost difference between CEA and CAS. Given that there may not be a cost advantage for either procedure, procedural risk, efficacy, and durability should be key factors in determining the optimal treatment strategy.

Restricted access

L. Gerard Toussaint III, Jonathan A. Friedman, Eelco F. M. Wijdicks, David G. Piepgras, Mark A. Pichelmann, Jon I. McIver, Robyn L. McClelland, Douglas A. Nichols, Fredric B. Meyer and John L. D. Atkinson

Object. Previous studies have indicated an increased incidence of death in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who are currently receiving anticoagulation therapy. The significance of previous aspirin use in patients with SAH is unknown. The authors analyzed the effects of prior aspirin use on clinical course and outcomes following aneurysmal SAH.

Methods. The medical records of 305 patients with angiogram-confirmed aneurysmal SAH who consecutively presented to our institution between 1990 and 1997 within 7 days of ictus were analyzed. Twenty-nine (9.5%) of these patients had a history of regular aspirin use before onset of the SAH. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to measure patient outcome at the longest available follow up.

Aspirin users were older on average than nonusers (59 years of age compared with 53 years; p = 0.018). The mean admission Hunt and Hess grades of patients with and without aspirin use were similar (2 compared with 2.3; p = 0.51). Two trends, which did not reach statistical significance, were observed. 1) The rebleeding rate in aspirin users was 14.3%, compared with a 4.7% rebleeding rate in nonusers (p = 0.06). 2) Permanent disability from vasospasm was less common among aspirin users (23% compared with 50%; p = 0.069). Outcomes did not differ between aspirin users and nonusers (mean GOS Score 3.83 compared with GOS Score 3.86, respectively; p = 0.82).

Conclusions. Despite trends indicating increased rebleeding rates and a lower incidence of permanent disability due to delayed ischemic neurological deficits, there was no significant effect of previous aspirin use on overall outcome following aneurysmal SAH. Based on these preliminary data, the presence of an intracranial aneurysm is not a strict contraindication to aspirin use.

Restricted access

Frederic P. Collignon, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and David G. Piepgras

✓✓ The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old man with progressive headache and blurred vision related to a hemangiopericytoma located exclusively in the confluence of sinuses (CoS) and in the transverse sinuses bilaterally. They believe this is the first report in which a hemangiopericytoma of the dural sinuses has been described without any intradural component. Although the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively, a gross-total resection of the tumor with restoration of sinus patency was achieved to relieve the symptoms. This diagnosis should be included in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a tumor of the CoS. Successful resection can be achieved in these cases.

Restricted access
Restricted access

Frederic P. Collignon, Jonathan A. Friedman, David G. Piepgras, Douglas A. Nichols and Harry Cloft

Full access

Jonathan A. Friedman and David G. Piepgras

Object

Vascular bypass is performed in neurosurgery for a variety of pathological entities, including extracranial atherosclerotic disease, extra- and intracranial aneurysms, and tumors involving the carotid artery (CA) at the skull base or cervical regions. Creation of an interposition saphenous vein graft (SVG) is the typical method of choice when the superficial temporal artery is not an option.

Methods

One hundred thirty consecutive patients treated with SVG between July 1988 and December 2002 at the Mayo Clinic were studied. A total of 130 procedures were performed in 130 patients. The indications were intracranial aneurysm in 51 patients (39%), CA occlusive disease in 36 (28%), extracranial CA aneurysm in 17 (13%), tumors involving the cervical CA in 11 (8%), vertebral artery occlusive disease in eight (6%), and other indications in six patients (5%). Among patients treated for intracranial aneurysms, 43 harbored giant aneurysms (> 25 mm in widest diameter) whereas the remaining eight patients harbored aneurysms that were large (15–25 mm in widest diameter). Among patients with CA occlusive disease, high-grade stenosis at the CA bifurcation was present in 29 and CA occlusion was demonstrated in seven.

Conclusions

The use of SVG bypass remains a valuable component of the neurosurgical armamentarium for a variety of pathological entities. Despite a general trend toward decreased use because of improved endovascular technology, surgical facility with this procedure should be maintained.