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Kaan Yagmurlu, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Evgenii Belykh, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Peter Nakaji, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

bifurcation of the contralateral ICA ( Figs. 1 – 8 ). Surgical freedom was defined as the maneuverability of instruments within the surgical approach to a selected point in the brain, such as the bifurcation of the ICA. FIG. 1. The steps of the mini-pterional approach. A: A curvilinear incision is centered on the extension line of the sphenoid groove ( blue dashed line ) 1 cm behind the hairline. B: The subcutaneous tissue, frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery, and superficial fat pad are exposed after the galeal flap is reflected toward the temporal fossa

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Pakrit Jittapiromsak, Pushpa Deshmukh, Peter Nakaji, Robert F. Spetzler and Mark C. Preul

, 49 Due to the approach-related dissection and high mobility of the orbital tissue, meticulous measurements of deep structures may have little significance. Anatomical relationships are our main concern when performing approach-related dissection. Medial Approach to the Orbit Surgical approaches to the orbit must provide maximum surgical safety and optimum exposure. The specific approach to an orbital lesion depends on the type of pathology, its location within the orbit, and its involvement with adjacent structures. 3 , 33 Basically, surgical approaches to

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Qing Sun, Xiaochun Zhao, Sirin Gandhi, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Evgenii Belykh, Daniel Valli, Claudio Cavallo, Leandro Borba Moreira, Peter Nakaji, Michael T. Lawton and Mark C. Preul

studies, such as this one, provide a valuable milieu for comparison of surgical approaches. Conclusions The cSCIT is the preferable approach in this anatomical study of the 4 procedures, with better exposure to the cisternal pulvinar than ipsilateral trajectories and larger lateral exposure than the cOCTF. The cOCTF approach created a larger exposure to the lateral portion of the pulvinar than did the iOCTT. The medial exposure did not differ among the 4 approaches. There was no difference in maneuverability among the approaches studied. A short length of tentorium can

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Evgenii Belykh, Kaan Yağmurlu, Ting Lei, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Mark E. Oppenlander, Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Vadim A. Byvaltsev, Robert F. Spetzler, Peter Nakaji and Mark C. Preul

approaches. Increased absolute values of surgical freedom and angles of attack could make subtle but statistically significant differences between the 2 approaches clinically insignificant. Hydrocephalus makes third ventricle lesions more approachable through the enlarged foramen of Monro, favoring an ipsilateral craniotomy. However, caudate region lesions may be shifted further laterally in patients with enlarged lateral ventricles, favoring a contralateral approach. Finally, the surgical approach should be tailored to the individual with the results of this study in mind

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Ali M. Elhadi, Hasan A. Zaidi, Kaan Yagmurlu, Shah Ahmed, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Peter Nakaji, Mark C. Preul and Andrew S. Little

anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa and the infratemporal fossa, and thus to limit these potential complications. Anatomical dissection studies have evolved from simple descriptive guides to surgically relevant guides. Smith and Laws noted that endoscopic classification schemes for skull base targets are critical for future generations of endoscopic surgeons. 30 Given the surge in popularity of endoscopic skull base surgery, several authors have proposed surgically relevant anatomical classification schemes for various other surgical approaches and anatomical

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not sell, republish, or systematically distribute any published materials without written permission from JNSPG. 2015 Introduction Cervical myelopathy(CM) is associated with significant healthcare costs in the United States. The anterior and posterior surgical approach yield similar clinical outcomes but the posterior approach is associated with a higher complication rate. The complications of the posterior approach are debilitating and cause ongoing medical utility consumption, making it a very economically costly surgical option. Methods A