Kyouichi Suzuki, Namio Kodama, Tatsuya Sasaki, Masato Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Ryoji Munakata, Hiroyuki Muramatsu and Hiromichi Kasuya
The authors performed fluorescein cerebral angiography in patients after aneurysm clip placement to confirm the patency of the parent artery, perforating artery, and other arteries around the aneurysm.
Twenty-three patients who underwent aneurysm surgery were studied. Aneurysms were located in the internal carotid artery in 12 patients, middle cerebral artery in six, anterior cerebral artery in three, basilar artery bifurcation in one, and junction of the vertebral artery (VA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery in one. After aneurysm clip placement, the target arteries were illuminated using a beam from a blue light-emitting diode atop a 7-mm diameter pencil-type probe. In all patients, after intravenous administration of 5 ml of 10% fluorescein sodium, fluorescence in the vessels was clearly observed through a microscope and recorded on videotape.
The excellent image quality and spatial resolution of the fluorescein angiography procedure facilitated intra-operative real-time assessment of the patency of the perforating arteries and branches near the aneurysm, including: 12 posterior communicating arteries; 12 anterior choroidal arteries; four lenticulostriate arteries; three recurrent arteries of Heubner; three hypothalamic arteries; one ophthalmic artery; one perforating artery arising from the VA; and one posterior thalamoperforating artery. All 23 patients experienced an uneventful postoperative course without clinical symptoms of perforating artery occlusion.
Because the fluorescein angiography procedure described here allows intraoperative confirmation of the patency of perforating arteries located deep inside the surgical field, it can be practically used for preventing unexpected cerebral infarction during aneurysm surgery.
Tatsuya Sasaki, Takeshi Itakura, Kyouichi Suzuki, Hiromichi Kasuya, Ryoji Munakata, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Taku Sato, Yuji Endo, Jun Sakuma and Masato Matsumoto
To obtain a clinically useful method of intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), the authors developed a new light-stimulating device and introduced electroretinography (ERG) to ascertain retinal light stimulation after induction of venous anesthesia.
The new stimulating device consists of 16 red light–emitting diodes embedded in a soft silicone disc to avoid deviation of the light axis after frontal scalp-flap reflection. After induction of venous anesthesia with propofol, the authors performed ERG and VEP recording in 100 patients (200 eyes) who were at intraoperative risk for visual impairment.
Stable ERG and VEP recordings were obtained in 187 eyes. In 12 eyes, stable ERG data were recorded but VEPs could not be obtained, probably because all 12 eyes manifested severe preoperative visual dysfunction. The disappearance of ERG data and VEPs in the 13th eye after frontal scalp-flap reflection suggested technical failure attributable to deviation of the light axis. The criterion for amplitude changes was defined as a 50% increase or decrease in amplitude compared with the control level. In 1 of 187 eyes the authors observed an increase in intraoperative amplitude and postoperative visual function improvement. Of 169 eyes without amplitude changes, 17 manifested improved visual function postoperatively, 150 showed no change, and 2 worsened (1 patient with a temporal tumor developed a slight visual field defect in both eyes). Of 3 eyes with intraoperative VEP deterioration and subsequent recovery upon changing the operative maneuver, 1 improved and 2 exhibited no change. The VEP amplitude decreased without subsequent recovery to 50% of the control level in 14 eyes, and all of these developed various degrees of postoperative deterioration of visual function.
With the strategy introduced here it is possible to record intraoperative VEPs in almost all patients except in those with severe visual dysfunction. In some patients, postoperative visual deterioration can be avoided or minimized by intraoperative VEP recording. All patients without an intraoperative decrease in the VEP amplitude were without severe postoperative deterioration in visual function, suggesting that intraoperative VEP monitoring may contribute to prevent postoperative visual dysfunction.