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  • Author or Editor: Sanjay Yadla x
  • By Author: Evans, James J. x
  • By Author: Campbell, Peter G. x
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Peter G. Campbell, Brian McGettigan, Adam Luginbuhl, Sanjay Yadla, Marc Rosen and James J. Evans

Object

The expanded endoscopic approach to craniopharyngiomas has recently been described in several small case series. The authors present their experience with this technique and review the available literature.

Methods

Between September 2006 and September 2009, 14 patients underwent a purely endoscopic, endonasal approach for resection of newly diagnosed craniopharyngiomas. These procedures represent index surgeries; no patient had undergone previous tumor resection. A retrospective review of endocrinological and ophthalmological outcomes, extent of resection, and complication prevalence was completed. Additionally, a review of the English literature was performed to evaluate outcomes of similar endoscopic techniques for resection of craniopharyngiomas.

Results

Four patients (28.6%) underwent gross-total resection; near total resection or better was achieved in 9 patients (64.3%). All patients presented with some form of visual field or acuity deficit. Postoperatively, 12 patients (85.7%) experienced visual improvement, with 6 patients (42.9%) having complete visual recovery. One patient experienced worsening of her visual deficit. Visual acuity improved in 8 patients ((57.1%), while visual field defects improved in 11 (78.6%). The pituitary stalk was preserved in all cases. Eight (57.1%) of 14 patients experienced some form of anterior pituitary dysfunction postoperatively. Although 9 patients (64.3%) were documented to have either transient or permanent new diabetes insipidus immediately after surgery, at 1-month follow-up only 1 patient met clinical criteria. Five patients (35.7%) developed CSF leaks that were successfully treated by subsequent endoscopic revision. All CSF leaks occurred early in the series. Two patients (14.2%) were treated for presumed meningitis postoperatively.

Conclusions

The endoscopic endonasal approach is a minimally invasive alternative to open transcranial approaches for select craniopharyngiomas. Similar to previous transcranial series, rates of endocrinopathy and gross-total resection were dependent upon the adherence of the tumor capsule to the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and associated vasculature. A review of the literature suggests that the results of the current series are similar to other published series on this topic.

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Peter G. Campbell, Erin Kenning, David W. Andrews, Sanjay Yadla, Marc Rosen and James J. Evans

Object

Using strict biochemical remission criteria, the authors assessed surgical outcomes after endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of growth hormone (GH)–secreting pituitary adenomas and identified preoperative factors that significantly influence the rate of remission.

Methods

A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed. The authors reviewed cases in which an endoscopic resection of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas was performed. The cohort consisted of 26 patients who had been followed for 3–60 months (mean 24.5 months). The thresholds of an age-appropriate, normalized insulin-like growth factor–I concentration, a nadir GH level after oral glucose load of less than 1.0 μg/l, and a random GH value of less than 2.5 μg/l were required to establish biochemical cure postoperatively.

Results

Overall, in 57.7% of patients undergoing a purely endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenectomy for acromegaly, an endocrinological cure was achieved. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 24.5 months. In patients with microadenomas (4 cases) the cure rate was 75%, whereas in patients harboring macroadenomas (22 cases) the cure rate was 54.5%. Cavernous sinus invasion (Knosp Grades 3 and 4) was associated with a significantly lower remission rate (p = 0.0068). Hardy Grade 3 and 4 tumors were also less likely to achieve biochemical cure (p = 0.013). The overall complication rate was 11.5% including 2 incidents of transient diabetes insipidus and 1 postoperative CSF leak, which were treated nonoperatively.

Conclusions

A purely endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to GH-secreting pituitary adenomas leads to similar outcome for noninvasive macroadenomas compared with traditional microsurgical techniques. Furthermore, this approach may often provide maximal visualization of the tumor, the pituitary gland, and the surrounding neurovascular structures.