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  • By Author: Edwards, Michael S. B. x
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Van V. Halbach, Christopher F. Dowd, Randall T. Higashida, Peter A. Balousek, Samuel F. Ciricillo and Michael S. B. Edwards

V ein of Galen malformations (VGMs) are recognized as a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonate and less commonly in infants. 1, 7–13, 15 Neonates usually present with high-output cardiac failure, which is most often fatal despite medical therapy. 8, 10 Conversely, patients with VGM who present in infancy may have mild or no heart failure but usually present with developmental delay, hydrocephalus, and seizures. 1, 2, 10, 11, 15 Lasjaunias and colleagues 2, 11, 12 have proposed that VGMs be subclassified into two distinct types: choroidal and

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Stanley L. Barnwell, Christopher F. Dowd, Richard L. Davis, Michael S. B. Edwards, Philip H. Gutin and Charles B. Wilson

six patients; the seventh patient deferred surgical therapy. The gross surgical findings were similar in all cases. After exposure of the dura over the lesion through a laminectomy that encompassed a level above and below the mass, intraoperative ultrasonography was used to localize the lesion precisely. The mass was exposed by opening the dura in the midline under the operating microscope; the mass was most often a dark, purple hematoma situated subpially within the cord. In all cases, the subarachnoid space was clear and without signs of hemorrhage. In a few