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Jonathan Rick, Arman Jahangiri, Patrick M. Flanigan, Ankush Chandra, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins and Manish K. Aghi


Acromegaly results in disfiguring growth and numerous medical complications. This disease is typically caused by growth hormone (GH)–secreting pituitary adenomas, which are treated first by resection, followed by radiation and/or medical therapy if needed. A subset of acromegalics have dual-staining pituitary adenomas (DSPAs), which stain for GH and prolactin. Presentations and treatment outcomes for acromegalics with DSPAs are not well understood.


The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of more than 5 years of pituitary adenomas resected at their institution. Data were collected on variables related to clinical presentation, tumor pathology, radiological size, and disease recurrence. The Fisher’s exact test, ANOVA, Student t-test, chi-square test, and Cox proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression were used to measure statistical significance.


Of 593 patients with pituitary adenoma, 91 presented with acromegaly. Of these 91 patients, 69 (76%) had tumors that stained for GH only (single-staining somatotrophic adenomas [SSAs]), while 22 (24%) had tumors that stained for GH and prolactin (DSPAs). Patients with DSPAs were more likely to present with decreased libido (p = 0.012), signs of acromegalic growth (p = 0.0001), hyperhidrosis (p = 0.0001), and headaches (p = 0.043) than patients with SSAs. DSPAs presented with significantly higher serum prolactin (60.7 vs 10.0 µg/L, p = 0.0002) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (803.6 vs 480.0 ng/ml, p = 0.0001), and were more likely to have IGF-1 levels > 650 ng/ml (n = 13 [81.3%] vs n = 6 [21.4%], p = 0.0001) than patients with SSAs despite similar sizes (1.8 vs 1.7 cm, p = 0.5). Patients with DSPAs under 35 years of age were more likely to have a recurrence (n = 4 [50.0%] vs n = 3 [11.1%], p = 0.01) than patients with SSAs under the age of 35. DSPA patients were less likely to achieve remission with surgery than SSA patients (n = 2 [20%] vs n = 19 [68%], p = 0.01). Univariate analysis identified single-staining tumors (p = 0.02), gross-total resection (p = 0.02), and tumor diameter (p = 0.05) as predictors of surgical remission. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that SSAs (p = 0.04) were independently associated with surgical remission of acromegaly. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that DSPAs had more time until disease remission (p = 0.033).


Acromegalics with tumors that stain for prolactin and GH, which represented almost a quarter of acromegalics in this cohort, had more aggressive clinical presentations and postoperative outcomes than SSAs. Prolactin staining provides useful information for acromegalics undergoing pituitary surgery.