Yisen Zhang, Binbin Sui, Jian Liu, Yang Wang, Zhongbin Tian, Junfan Chen, Zhongxue Wu and Xinjian Yang
The recurrence rate of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms (VBDAs) after reconstructive endovascular treatment (EVT) is relatively high. The aneurysm wall enhancement on high-resolution MRI (HRMRI) reportedly predicts an unsteady state of an intracranial aneurysm. The authors used HRMRI to investigate the relationship between wall enhancement on HRMRI and progression of VBDAs after reconstructive EVT.
From January 2012 to December 2015, patients with an unruptured VBDA who underwent reconstructive EVT were enrolled in this study. Preoperative enhanced HRMRI was performed to evaluate radiological characteristics. The relationships between aneurysm wall enhancement and various potential risk factors were statistically analyzed. Follow-up angiographic examination was performed with digital subtraction angiography and conventional HRMRI. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of VBDA progression after reconstructive EVT.
Eighty-two patients (12 women and 70 men, mean age 53.48 ± 9.23 years) with 83 VBDAs were evaluated in the current study. The average maximum diameter of the VBDAs was 11.30 ± 7.90 mm. Wall enhancement occurred in 43 VBDAs (51.81%). Among all 83 VBDAs, 62 (74.70%) were treated by stent-assisted coil embolization and 21 (25.30%) by stenting alone. The mean duration of imaging follow-up among all 82 patients was 10.55 months (range 6–45 months), and 15 aneurysms (18.07%) exhibited progression. The statistical analysis indicated no significant differences in age, sex, risk factors (high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and a high cholesterol level), VBDA stage, or VBDA size between enhanced and unenhanced VBDAs. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that both the maximum diameter of the VBDAs and wall enhancement were associated with recurrence (p < 0.05). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the maximum diameter of the VBDAs and wall enhancement on HRMRI were independent risk factors for aneurysm progression (p < 0.05).
Aneurysm size and wall enhancement on HRMRI can predict the progression of VBDAs after reconstructive EVT.
Yisen Zhang, Zhongbin Tian, Chuzhong Li, Jian Liu, Ying Zhang, Xinjian Yang and Yazhuo Zhang
Internal carotid artery (ICA) injuries during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) are catastrophic complications. Alongside the advancements in medical instrumentation and material, there is a need to modify previous treatment modalities and principles.
A retrospective review of 3658 patients who underwent EES performed at the authors’ institution between January 2012 and December 2017 was conducted. Ultimately, 20 patients (0.55%) with ICA injury following EES were enrolled for analysis. Data collection included demographic data, preoperative diagnosis, injury setting, repair method, and immediate and follow-up angiographic and clinical outcomes.
Among the 20 patients, 11 received immediate endovascular therapy and 9 were treated only with packing. Of the 11 patients who received endovascular treatment, 6 were treated by covered stent and 5 by parent artery occlusion (PAO). The preservation rate of injured ICA increased from 20.0% (1 of 5) to 83.3% (5 of 6) after the Willis covered stent graft became available in January 2016. Of the 20 patients in the study, 19 recovered well and 1 patient—who had a pseudoaneurysm and was treated by PAO with a detachable balloon—suffered epistaxis after the hemostat in her nasal cavity was removed in ward, and she died later that day. The authors speculated that the detachable balloon had shifted to the distal part of ICA, although the patient could not undergo a repeat angiogram because she quickly suffered shock and could not be transferred to the catheter room. After the introduction of a hybrid operating room (OR), one patient whose first angiogram showed no ICA injury was found to have a pseudoaneurysm. He received endovascular treatment when he was brought for a repeat angiogram 5 days later in the hybrid OR after removing the hemostat in his nasal cavity. Of the 4 surviving patients treated with PAO, no external carotid artery–ICA bypass was required. The authors propose a modified endovascular treatment protocol for ICA injuries suffered during EES that exploits the advantage of the covered stent graft and the hybrid OR.
The endovascular treatment protocol used in this study for ICA injuries during EES was helpful in the management of this rare complication. Willis stent placement improved the preservation rate of injured ICA during EES. It would be highly advantageous to manage this complication in a hybrid OR or by a mobile C-arm to get a clear intraoperative angiogram.