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  • Author or Editor: Qiao Li x
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Hua-Qiao Tan, Ming-Hua Li, Yue-Qi Zhu, Chun Fang, Chun-Geng Wu, Ying-Sheng Cheng, Jue Wang, Jian Xie and He Zhang


The development and preclinical assessment of new endovascular devices necessitate readily available and reproducible animal models. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vivo carotid siphon model for testing the properties of covered stents specially designed for the intracranial vasculature.


Six carotid siphon–shaped devices were created. Six dogs underwent surgery to expose and isolate both common carotid arteries (CCAs). The right CCA origin was ligated and incised distal to the ligation point after temporary constriction of the distal right CCA. The distal left CCA was ligated and incised proximal to the ligation point after the left CCA origin was temporarily clamped. The proximal isolated left CCA was passed through the shaped device and then anastomosed end-to-end to the distal isolated right CCA. Finally, the shaped device was fixed and embedded in the neck. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography was performed at 7 days, 2 weeks, and 1 month postprocedure. All models underwent endovascular interventional simulation. The carotid siphon models were evaluated.


The animals tolerated the surgical procedure well. The mean time for surgical construction of the model was 90 minutes. The morphology and endovascular manipulation of the siphon models were similar to those in humans. Stenosis of anastomotic stoma occurred in 2 models, and mural thrombosis of anastomotic stoma occurred in 1 model; however, all models were patent at postprocedural follow-up angiography.


Surgical construction of an in vivo carotid siphon model in dogs with carotid siphon–shaped devices is feasible and potentially useful for testing neurovascular devices.