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  • Author or Editor: Lonni R. Schultz x
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Lara W. Massie, Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Lonni R. Schultz, Azam Basheer, Morenikeji Ayodele Buraimoh and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

The inability to significantly improve sagittal parameters has been a limitation of minimally invasive surgery for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Traditional cages have a limited capacity to restore lordosis. This study evaluates the use of a crescent-shaped articulating expandable cage (Altera) for MIS TLIF.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of 1- and 2-level MIS TLIF. Radiographic outcomes included differences in segmental and lumbar lordosis, disc height, evidence of fusion, and any endplate violations. Clinical outcomes included the numeric rating scale for leg and back pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for low-back pain.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine patients underwent single-level MIS TLIF, and 5 underwent 2-level MIS TLIF. The mean age was 63.1 years, with 64% women. On average, spondylolisthesis was corrected by 4.3 mm (preoperative = 6.69 mm, postoperative = 2.39 mm, p < 0.001), the segmental angle was improved by 4.94° (preoperative = 5.63°, postoperative = 10.58°, p < 0.001), and segmental height increased by 3.1 mm (preoperative = 5.09 mm, postoperative = 8.19 mm, p < 0.001). At 90 days after surgery the authors observed the following: a smaller postoperative sagittal vertical axis was associated with larger changes in back pain at 90 days (r = −0.558, p = 0.013); a larger decrease in spondylolisthesis was associated with greater improvements in ODI and back pain scores (r = −0.425, p = 0.043, and r = −0.43, p = 0.031, respectively); and a larger decrease in pelvic tilt (PT) was associated with greater improvements in back pain (r = −0.548, p = 0.043). For the 1-year PROs, the relationship between the change in PT and changes in ODI and numeric rating scale back pain were significant (r = 0.612, p = 0.009, and r = −0.803, p = 0.001, respectively) with larger decreases in PT associated with larger improvements in ODI and back pain. Overall for this study there was a 96% fusion rate.

Fourteen patients were noted to have endplate violation on intraoperative fluoroscopy during placement of the cage. Only 3 of these had progression of their subsidence, with an overall subsidence rate of 6% (3 of 49) visible on postoperative CT.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of this expandable, articulating, lordotic, or hyperlordotic interbody cage for MIS TLIF provides a significant restoration of segmental height and segmental lordosis, with associated improvements in sagittal balance parameters. Patients treated with this technique had acceptable levels of fusion and significant reductions in pain and disability.

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Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, Markian A. Pahuta, Jason M. Schwalb, Paul Park, Ilyas Aleem, David R. Nerenz, Victor Chang and for the MSSIC Investigators

OBJECTIVE

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) is a statewide, multicenter quality improvement initiative. Using MSSIC data, the authors sought to identify 90-day adverse events and their associated risk factors (RFs) after cervical spine surgery.

METHODS

A total of 8236 cervical spine surgery cases were analyzed. Multivariable generalized estimating equation regression models were constructed to identify RFs for adverse events; variables tested included age, sex, diabetes mellitus, disc herniation, foraminal stenosis, central stenosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Classification System (ASA) class > II, myelopathy, private insurance, anterior versus posterior approach, revision procedures, number of surgical levels, length of procedure, blood loss, preoperative ambulation, ambulation day of surgery, length of hospital stay, and discharge disposition.

RESULTS

Ninety days after cervical spine surgery, adverse events identified included radicular findings (11.6%), readmission (7.7%), dysphagia requiring dietary modification (feeding tube or nothing by mouth [NPO]) (6.4%), urinary retention (4.7%), urinary tract infection (2.2%), surgical site hematoma (1.1%), surgical site infection (0.9%), deep vein thrombosis (0.7%), pulmonary embolism (0.5%), neurogenic bowel/bladder (0.4%), myelopathy (0.4%), myocardial infarction (0.4%), wound dehiscence (0.2%), claudication (0.2%), and ileus (0.2%). RFs for dysphagia included anterior approach (p < 0.001), fusion procedures (p = 0.030), multiple-level surgery when considering anterior procedures only (p = 0.037), and surgery duration (p = 0.002). RFs for readmission included ASA class > II (p < 0.001), while preoperative ambulation (p = 0.001) and private insurance (p < 0.001) were protective. RFs for urinary retention included increasing age (p < 0.001) and male sex (p < 0.001), while anterior-approach surgery (p < 0.001), preoperative ambulation (p = 0.001), and ambulation day of surgery (p = 0.001) were protective. Preoperative ambulation (p = 0.010) and anterior approach (p = 0.002) were protective of radicular findings.

CONCLUSIONS

A multivariate analysis from a large, multicenter, prospective database identified the common adverse events after cervical spine surgery, along with their associated RFs. This information can lead to more informed surgeons and patients. The authors found that early mobilization after cervical spine surgery has the potential to significantly decrease adverse events.

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Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Karam Asmaro, Mohamed Macki, Michael Bazydlo, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Muwaffak Abdulhak, Jason M. Schwalb, Paul Park and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) is a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, quality-improvement collaborative. Using MSSIC, the authors sought to identify the relationship between a positive Patient Health Questionnaire–2 (PHQ-2) screening, which is predictive of depression, and patient satisfaction, return to work, and achieving Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) minimal clinically important difference (MCID) scores up to 2 years after lumbar fusion.

METHODS

Data from a total of 8585 lumbar fusion patients were analyzed. Patient satisfaction was measured by the North American Spine Society patient satisfaction index. A positive PHQ-2 score is one that is ≥ 3, which has an 82.9% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity in detecting major depressive disorder. Generalized estimating equation models were constructed; variables tested include age, sex, race, past medical history, severity of surgery, and preoperative opioid usage.

RESULTS

Multivariate analysis was performed. Patients with a positive PHQ-2 score (i.e., ≥ 3) were less likely to be satisfied after lumbar fusion at 90 days (relative risk [RR] 0.93, p < 0.001), 1 year (RR 0.92, p = 0.001), and 2 years (RR 0.92, p = 0.028). A positive PHQ-2 score was also associated with decreased likelihood of returning to work at 90 days (RR 0.76, p < 0.001), 1 year (RR 0.85, p = 0.001), and 2 years (RR 0.82, p = 0.031). A positive PHQ-2 score was predictive of failure to achieve an ODI MCID at 90 days (RR 1.07, p = 0.005) but not at 1 year or 2 years after lumbar fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

A multivariate analysis based on information from a large, multicenter, prospective database on lumbar fusion patients was performed. The authors found that a positive score (≥ 3) on the PHQ-2, which is a simple and accurate screening tool for depression, predicts an inability to return to work and worse satisfaction up to 2 years after lumbar fusion. Depression is a treatable condition, and so in the same way that patients are medically optimized before surgery to decrease postoperative morbidity, perhaps patients should have preoperative psychiatric optimization to improve postoperative functional outcomes.