Bengt Karlsson, Wan-Yuo Guo, Teo Kejia, Nivedh Dinesh, David Hung-Chi Pan, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Albertus T. C. J. van Eck, Gerhard A. Horstmann, Tseng Tsai Yeo and Masaaki Yamamoto
The optimal management of central neurocytoma (CN) remnants and recurrences is still not clear. To date no large series of patients treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for CNs has been published. For that reason the authors decided to combine data from 5 different centers so that they could analyze the largest population of patients treated with GKS for CN currently available.
Data obtained in 42 patients who were treated for CN with GKS before July 1, 2010, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The median prescribed dose was 13 Gy (range 11–25 Gy). The follow-up time in these patients ranged from 0.5 to 14.7 years (mean 6.1 years, median 4.9 years). Eleven patients were followed up for 5–10 years and 9 patients for more than 10 years. All patients were alive and well at the closing of the study except 1 patient, who died of injuries sustained in a traffic accident.
Two cases of local tumor progression and 2 cases of distant tumor recurrence occurred among the patient population, yielding 5- and 10-year tumor control rates of 91% and 81%, respectively. No permanent complications occurred. The findings were in line with results reported in earlier publications. Despite the high tumor control rate, enlargement of part of or the whole ventricular system was seen in 45% of patients.
The high tumor control rate and the low complication rate following GKS indicate that GKS is the preferred treatment for CN tumor remnants or recurrences following microsurgery. However, data from longer follow-up times in more patients are needed before this conclusion can be validated. The patients need to be closely monitored and potential hydrocephalus managed despite tumor control.
Bengt Karlsson, Arne V. Johansson, Huai-Che Yang, Hidefumi Jokura, Masaaki Yamamoto, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez, Jun Kawagishi, Wan-Yuo Guo, Guus Beute, David H. C. Pan, Wen-Yuh Chung, Michael Söderman, Hitoshi Aiyama and Tseng Tsai Yeo
There is a strong clinical need to accurately determine the average annual hemorrhage risk in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This need motivated the present initiative to use data from a uniquely large patient population and design a novel methodology to achieve a risk determination with unprecedented accuracy. The authors also aimed to determine the impact of sex, pregnancy, AVM volume, and location on the risk for AVM rupture.
The present study does not consider any specific management of the AVMs, but only uses the age distribution for the first hemorrhage, the shape of which becomes universal for a sufficiently large set of patients. For this purpose, the authors collected observations, including age at first hemorrhage and AVM size and location, in 3425 patients. The average annual risk for hemorrhage could then be determined from the simple relation that the number of patients with their first hemorrhage at a specific age equals the risk for hemorrhage times the number of patients at risk at that age. For a subset of the patients, the information regarding occurrence of AVM hemorrhage after treatment of the first hemorrhage was used for further analysis of the influence on risk from AVM location and pregnancy.
The age distribution for the first AVM hemorrhage was used to determine the average annual risk for hemorrhage in unruptured AVMs at adult ages (25–60 years). It was concluded to be 3.1% ± 0.2% and unrelated to AVM volume but influenced by its location, with the highest risk for centrally located AVMs. The hemorrhage risk was found to be significantly higher for females in their fertile years.
The present methodology allowed the authors to determine the average annual risk for the first AVM hemorrhage at 3.1% ± 0.2% without the need for individual patient follow-up. This methodology has potential also for other similar types of investigations. The conclusion that centrally located AVMs carry a higher risk was confirmed by follow-up information. Follow-up information was also used to conclude that pregnancy causes a substantially greater AVM hemorrhage risk. The age distribution for AVM hemorrhage is incompatible with AVMs present at birth having the same hemorrhage risk as AVMs in adults. Plausibly, they instead develop in the early years of life, possibly with a lower hemorrhage risk during that time period.