Jau-Ching Wu, Chin-Chu Ko, Yu-Shu Yen, Wen-Cheng Huang, Yu-Chun Chen, Laura Liu, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Su-Shun Lo and Henrich Cheng
This study aimed to determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its associated risk of causing subsequent spinal cord injury (SCI).
Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a 12-year nationwide database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of hospitalization caused by CSM. All patients diagnosed with and admitted for CSM were identified during the study period. The CSM patients were divided into 2 groups, a control group and an operated group. An incidence density method was used to estimate age- and sex-specific incidence rates of CSM. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of SCI between the 2 groups.
From 1998 to 2009, covering 349.5 million person-years, 14,140 patients were hospitalized for CSM. The overall incidence of CSM-related hospitalization was 4.04 per 100,000 person-years. Specifically, males and older persons had a higher incidence rate of CSM. During the follow-up of these patients for 13,461 person-years, a total of 166 patients were diagnosed with SCI. The incidence of SCI was higher in the control group than the operated group (13.9 vs 9.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively). During the follow-up, SCI was more likely to occur in CSM patients who were treated conservatively (crude HR 1.48, p = 0.023; adjusted HR 1.57, p = 0.011) than in those who underwent surgery for CSM.
In a national cohort of eastern Asia, the incidence of CSM-caused hospitalization was 4.04 per 100,000 person-years, with higher incidences observed in older and male patients. Subsequent SCI was more likely to develop in patients who received nonoperative management than in those who underwent surgery. Therefore, patients with CSM managed without surgery should be cautioned about SCI. However, further investigations are still required to clarify the risks and complications associated with surgery for CSM.
Wen-Cheng Huang, Jau-Ching Wu, Peng-Yuan Chang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Yu-Shu Yen and Henrich Cheng
Peng-Yuan Chang, Yu-Shu Yen, Jau-Ching Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Li-Yu Fay and Henrich Cheng
Yu-Shu Yen, Peng-Yuan Chang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Jau-Ching Wu, Muh-Lii Liang, Tsung-Hsi Tu and Henrich Cheng
The goal of the study was to report a series of consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomy (ETO) without resection of nasal turbinates. The techniques for this minimally invasive approach are described in detail.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent ETO for basilar invagination. All the patients had myelopathy caused by compression at the cervicomedullary junction, which required surgical decompression. Preoperative and postoperative data, including those from radiographic and clinical evaluations, were compared. Morbidity and mortality rates for the procedure are also reported in detail.
Thirteen patients (6 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 52.7 years (range 24–72 years) were enrolled. The basilar invagination etiologies were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 5), trauma (n = 4), os odontoideum (n = 2), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 1), and postinfectious deformity (n = 1). The average follow-up duration was 51.2 months (range 0.3–105 months). One patient died 10 days after the operation as a result of meningitis caused by CSF leakage. Among the other 12 patients, the average postoperative Nurick grade (3.2) was significantly improved over that before the operation (4.1, p = 0.004). The mean (± SD) duration of postoperative intubation was 1.5 ± 2.1 days, and there was no need for perioperative tracheostomy or nasogastric tube feeding. There also was no postoperative velopharyngeal insufficiency. There were 6 (46%) intraoperative and 2 (15%) postoperative CSF leaks in the 13 patients in this series.
ETO is a viable and effective option for decompression at the ventral cervicomedullary junction. This approach is minimally invasive and causes little velopharyngeal insufficiency. The pitfall of this approach is the difficulty in repairing dural defects and subsequent CSF leakage.
Peng-Yuan Chang, Yu-Shu Yen, Jau-Ching Wu, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Li-Yu Fay, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Ching-Lan Wu, Wen-Cheng Huang and Henrich Cheng
Although anterior odontoidectomy has been widely accepted as a procedure for decompression of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), postoperative biomechanical instability has not been well addressed. There is a paucity of data on the necessity for and choice of fixation.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of consecutively treated patients with basilar invagination who underwent anterior odontoidectomy and various types of posterior fixation. Posterior fixation included 1 of 3 kinds of constructs: occipitocervical (OC) fusion with atlantoaxial (AA) fixation, OC fusion without AA fixation, or AA-only (without OC) fixation. On the basis of the use or nonuse of AA fixation, these patients were assigned to either the AA group, in which the posterior fixation surgery involved both the atlas and axis simultaneously, regardless of whether the patient underwent OC fusion, or the non-AA group, in which the OC fusion construct spared the atlas, axis, or both. Clinical outcomes and neurological function were compared. Radiological results at each time point (i.e., before and after odontoidectomy and after fixation) were assessed by calculating the triangular area causing ventral indentation of the brainstem in the CVJ.
Data obtained in 14 consecutively treated patients with basilar invagination were analyzed in this series; the mean follow-up time was 5.75 years. The mean age was 53.58 years; there were 7 males and 7 females. The AA and non-AA groups consisted of 7 patients each. The demographic data of both groups were similar. Overall, there was significant improvement in neurological function after the operation (p = 0.03), and there were no differences in the postoperative Nurick grades between the 2 groups (p = 1.00). According to radiological measurements, significant decompression of the ventral brainstem was achieved stepwise in both groups by anterior odontoidectomy and posterior fixation; the mean ventral triangular area improved from 3.00 ± 0.86 cm2 to 2.08 ± 0.51 cm2 to 1.68 ± 0.59 cm2 (before and after odontoidectomy and after fixation, respectively; p < 0.05). The decompression gained by odontoidectomy (i.e., reduction of the ventral triangular area) was similar in the AA and non-AA groups (0.66 ± 0.42 cm2 vs 1.17 ± 1.42 cm2, respectively; p = 0.38). However, the decompression achieved by posterior fixation was significantly greater in the AA group than in the non-AA group (0.64 ± 0.39 cm2 vs 0.17 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively; p = 0.01).
Anterior odontoidectomy alone provides significant decompression at the CVJ. Adjuvant posterior fixation further enhances the extent of decompression after the odontoidectomy. Moreover, posterior fixation that involves AA fixation yields significantly more decompression of the ventral brainstem than OC fusion that spares AA fixation.
Chih-Chang Chang, Yu-Shu Yen, Tsung-Hsi Tu, Li-Yu Fay, Wen-Cheng Huang and Jau-Ching Wu