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Seunggu J. Han, Isaac Yang, Jose J. Otero, Brian J. Ahn, Tarik Tihan, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Susan M. Chang and Andrew T. Parsa

methylguanine-methyltransferase and epidermal growth factor receptor, were not performed here, our findings stress the necessity of detailed molecular and genetic analyses that may identify unique features of GBMs that will recur as SGS, as well as mutations associated with or that drive progression to SGS. These studies will ultimately guide therapy for these unique patients. Limitations of our study include the retrospective nature of the analysis as well as the heterogeneity of baseline prognostic factors and treatment modalities used in patients. Ideally, a multivariate

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

, AZ), Kenneth Aldape , MD, (Houston, TX), and Arnab Chakravarti , MD, and (Columbus, OH) Griffith R. Harsh IV , MD 8 2010 113 2 A430 A430 This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose. 2010 Introduction: Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncoprotein is a molecular hallmark of glioblastomas. Two-thirds of tumors with excessive EGFR activation show alteration of the EGFR gene. The

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Winward Choy, Won Kim, Daniel Nagasawa, Stephanie Stramotas, Andrew Yew, Quinton Gopen, Andrew T. Parsa and Isaac Yang

epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in all cases, while normal human meningeal tissue did not have detectable EGFR. 90 , 114 Expression of the EGFR ligands, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), and EGF in meningiomas also contribute to the activation of EGFR through an autocrine loop. 15 , 27 , 90 Increased TGFα expression is associated with more aggressive meningioma growth. 124 Meningiomas also express transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Type I and II TGFβ receptors. 124 Transforming growth factor–β has been demonstrated as a Smad 2/3-mediated

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Brendan Fong, Garni Barkhoudarian, Patrick Pezeshkian, Andrew T. Parsa, Quinton Gopen and Isaac Yang

is necessary for Nf2/merlin-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor silencing . Mol Cell Biol 28 : 1274 – 1284 , 2008 22 Curto M , Cole BK , Lallemand D , Liu CH , McClatchey AI : Contact-dependent inhibition of EGFR signaling by Nf2/Merlin . J Cell Biol 177 : 893 – 903 , 2007 23 Deacon SW , Beeser A , Fukui JA , Rennefahrt UE , Myers C , Chernoff J , : An isoform-selective, small-molecule inhibitor targets the autoregulatory mechanism of p21-activated kinase . Chem Biol 15 : 322 – 331 , 2008 24 Evans DG