✓ Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy was first described in 1969 by Rosai and Dorfman. The typical clinical characteristics of this disease include painless cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and weight loss. The condition can present with an extranodal mass in about 25% of patients, and isolated masses without lymph node involvement occur rarely. The authors describe a 5-year-old boy with cavernous sinus syndrome due to an isolated extranodal form of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy in the temporal fossa. Several cases of this disease involving the central nervous system are reviewed. The histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics are discussed.