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  • Author or Editor: Jia Wang x
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Da Li, Yang Yang, Shu-Yu Hao, Liang Wang, Jie Tang, Xin-Ru Xiao, Hui Zhou, Gui-Jun Jia, Zhen Wu, Li-Wei Zhang and Jun-Ting Zhang


The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre- and postoperative rehemorrhage risk, neurological function outcome, and prognostic factors of surgically treated brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) with long-term follow-up.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of the clinical data from 242 patients with brainstem CMs that were surgically treated between 1999 and 2010. Patient charts, imaging findings, and outcomes were examined.


The study included 242 patients, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and mean age of 32.6 years. The mean modified Rankin Scale scores on admission, at discharge, at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and at recent evaluation were 2.2, 2.6, 2.3, 1.8, and 1.5, respectively. The preoperative calculated annual hemorrhage and rehemorrhage rates were 5.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The complete resection rate was 95%. Surgical morbidity occurred in 112 patients (46.3%). Eighty-five patients (35.1%) demonstrated worsened condition immediately after surgery; 34 (41.0%) and 51 (61.4%) of these patients recovered to their baseline level within 3 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 89.4 months, the patients' condition had improved in 147 cases (60.7%), was unchanged in 70 cases (28.9%), and had worsened in 25 cases (10.3%). A total of 8 hemorrhages occurred in 6 patients, and the postoperative annual hemorrhage rate was 0.4%. Permanent morbidity remained in 65 patients (26.9%). The adverse factors for preoperative rehemorrhage were age ≥ 50 years, size ≥ 2 cm, and perilesional edema. The risk factors for postoperative hemorrhage were developmental venous anomaly and incomplete resection. The independent adverse factors for long-term outcome were increased age, multiple hemorrhages, ventral-seated lesions, and poor preoperative status. Favorable, complete improvement in the postoperative deficits over time was correlated with good preoperative neurological function and continuing improvement thereafter.


Favorable long-term outcomes and significantly low postoperative annual hemorrhage rates were achieved via surgery. Total resection should be attempted with an aim of minimal injury to neurological function; however, postoperative deficits can improve during the postoperative course. Close follow-up with radiological examination is proposed for patients with adverse factors predictive of rehemorrhage.

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Da Li, Xiao-Jun Zeng, Shu-Yu Hao, Liang Wang, Jie Tang, Xin-Ru Xiao, Guo-Lu Meng, Gui-Jun Jia, Li-Wei Zhang, Zhen Wu and Jun-Ting Zhang


The aim of this study was to analyze the neurological functional outcome and recurrent risks in surgically treated jugular foramen paragangliomas (JFPs) and to propose an individualized therapeutic strategy.


Clinical charts and radiological information were reviewed retrospectively in 51 consecutive cases of JFPs. Less-aggressive surgical interventions were adopted with the goal of preserving neurovascular structures. Scheduled follow-up was performed.


The mean age of the patients in the cases reviewed was 41.6 years, and the group included 27 females (52.9%). The mean preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 78.4. The mean lesion size was 3.8 cm. Forty-three cases (84.3%) were Fisch Type D, including 37 cases (72.5%) of Type Di1 and Di2. Thirty-seven cases (72.5%) were Glasscock-Jackson Type III–IV. Gross-total resection and subtotal resection were achieved in 26 (51.0%) and 22 (43.1%) cases, respectively. Surgical morbidities occurred in 23 patients (45.1%), without surgery-related mortality after the first operation. The mean postoperative KPS scores at discharge, 3 months, 1 year, and most recent evaluation were 71.8, 77.2, 83.2, and 79.6, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 85.7 months. The tumor recurrence/regrowth (R/R) rate was 11.8%. Compared with preoperative status, swallowing function improved or stabilized in 96.1% and facial function improved or stabilized in 94.1% of patients. A House-Brackmann scale Grade I/II was achieved in 43 patients (84.3%). Overall neurological status improved or stabilized in 90.0% of patients. Pathological mitosis (HR 10.640, p = 0.009) was the most significant risk for tumor R/R. A 1-year increase in age (OR 1.115, p = 0.037) and preoperative KPS score < 80 (OR 11.071, p = 0.018) indicated a risk for recent poor neurological function (KPS < 80). Overall R/R-free survival, symptom progression–free survival, and overall survival at 15 years were 78.9%, 86.8%, and 80.6%, respectively.


Surgical outcomes for JFPs were acceptable using a less-aggressive surgical strategy. Most patients could adapt to surgical morbidities and carry out normal life activities. Preserving neurological function was a priority, and maximal decompression with or without radiotherapy was desirable to preserve a patient's quality of life when radical resection was not warranted. Early surgery plus preoperative devascularization was proposed, and radiotherapy was mandatory for lesions with pathological mitosis.