The authors review the history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients for treating obesity, describe current DBS targets in the brain, and discuss potential DBS targets and nontraditional stimulation parameters that may improve the effectiveness of DBS for ameliorating obesity. Deep brain stimulation for treating obesity has been performed both in animals and in humans with intriguing preliminary results. The brain is an attractive target for addressing obesity because modulating brain activity may permit influencing both sides of the energy equation—caloric intake and energy expenditure.
Derrick A. Dupré, Nestor Tomycz, Michael Y. OH and Donald Whiting
Derrick A. Dupré, Daniel J. Cook, J. Brad Bellotte, Michael Y. Oh, Donald Whiting and Boyle C. Cheng
Spinal stability is attributed in part to osteoligamentous structures, including the vertebral body, facets, intervertebral discs, and posterior elements. The materials in this study provide an opportunity to augment the degenerated nucleus without removing native disc material, a procedure introduced here as “fortification.” The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nucleus fortification on lumbar disc biomechanics.
The authors performed in vitro analysis of human cadaveric functional spinal units (FSUs), along with characterization and quantification of movement of the units using biomechanical data in intact, disc-only, and fortified specimens. The units underwent removal of all posterior elements and annulus and were fortified by injecting a biogel into the nucleus pulposus. Each specimen was subjected to load testing, range of motion (ROM) quantification, and disc bulge measurements. Optoelectric tracking was used to quantify disc bulge. These criteria were assessed in the intact, disc-only, and fortified treatments.
Disc-only FSUs resulted in increased ROM when compared with intact and fortified conditions. Fortification of the FSU resulted in partial restoration of normal ROM in the treatment groups. Analysis of hysteresis loops showed more linear response in the fortified groups when compared with the intact and disc-only groups.
Disc nucleus fortification increases linearity and decreases ROM.
Kai Zhang, Sanjay Bhatia, Michael Y. Oh, David Cohen, Cindy Angle and Donald Whiting
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) has proven to be efficacious in the treatment of essential tremor (ET). The authors report on long-term follow-up of a series of patients treated at 1 institution by 1 neurosurgeon.
Thirty-four patients with ET received unilateral or bilateral VIM DBS. The tremor and handwriting components of the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin clinical tremor rating scale were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Visual analog scale scores for overall patient satisfaction and tremor control were recorded. Stimulation parameters at different intervals after surgery were also recorded.
The average follow-up period was 56.9 months. The average tremor score improved from 3.27 preoperatively to 0.64 postoperatively (on stimulation; p < 0.001) and the average handwriting score improved from 2.94 to 0.89 (p < 0.001). The average visual analog scale score for overall satisfaction was 8.12 and for tremor control was 1.43. Overall, there was an 80.4% improvement in tremor and 69.7% improvement in handwriting. In 12 patients both tremor and handwriting scores were compared between 57.3 months and 90.7 months after surgery and no significant changes were discovered. Comparison of stimulation parameters at onset and at 1–3, 3–5, 5–7, and > 7 years after surgery showed significant differences, with a gradual increase in stimulation parameters within 5 years after surgery. The overall hardware-related complication rate was 23.5%.
Deep brain stimulation of the VIM is an efficient and safe treatment for ET. Tremor and handwriting improvements in long-term follow-up are stable. The patients' perception of their outcome is quite good. However, tolerance may develop in some patients requiring changes in stimulation parameters.
Dunbar Alcindor, Michael Y. Oh, Susan Baser, Cindy Angle, Boyle C. Cheng and Donald Whiting
The authors report the case of DYT1-positive primary generalized dystonia refractory to medical management that was successfully treated with continuous deep brain stimulation of the internal segment of the globus pallidus. Prior studies have shown that neuromusculoskeletal deficits can remain permanent if early surgical intervention is not undertaken. The authors report prolonged efficacy and safety over a 10-year period in a 28-year-old man.