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  • Author or Editor: Raymond Sawaya x
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Dima Suki, Hiba Abouassi, Akash J. Patel, Raymond Sawaya, Jeffrey S. Weinberg and Morris D. Groves

Object

The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with metastatic posterior fossa lesions (MPFLs) treated with resection have a higher risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD) than those with MPFLs treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Methods

Between 1993 and 2004, 379 patients with MPFLs were treated with resection or SRS at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The authors' primary study outcome was the incidence of LMD, as diagnosed with cerebrospinal fluid cytological analysis and/or neuroimaging.

Results

Resection was performed in 260 patients, whereas 119 patients underwent SRS. The median patient age was 56 years, 51% of patients were male, and 93% had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score $ 70. The most common primary cancers were those of the lung, breast, and kidney, as well as melanoma. Leptomeningeal dissemination of cancer occurred in 33 patients: 26 in the resection group and 7 in the SRS group (resection group: rate ratio [RR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–4.75, p = 0.09). Piecemeal tumor resection (137 cases) was associated with a significantly higher risk of LMD than en bloc resection (123 cases; RR 3.4, 95% CI 1.43–8.12, p = 0.006) or SRS (RR 3.37, 95% CI 1.41–8.04, p = 0.006), and there was no significant difference in the risk for LMD between en bloc resection and SRS (en bloc resection: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.34–2.81, p = 0.98). The multivariate RR and significance associated with piecemeal resection, however, were consistent, with a strong effect (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.19–5.02, p = 0.02) and no indication of biases associated with tumor size, location, or cystic/necrotic appearance.

Conclusions

There is an increased risk of LMD after piecemeal resection of an MPFL. This increase, although clinically and statistically significant, is not as alarming as previously reported and is absent when en bloc removal is achieved. Further assessment of the role of resection in a controlled prospective setting is warranted.

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Sherise D. Ferguson, Nicholas B. Levine, Dima Suki, Andrew J. Tsung, Fredrick F. Lang, Raymond Sawaya, Jeffrey S. Weinberg and Ian E. McCutcheon

OBJECTIVE

Fourth ventricle tumors are rare, and surgical series are typically small, comprising a single pathology, or focused exclusively on pediatric populations. This study investigated surgical outcome and complications following fourth ventricle tumor resection in a diverse patient population. This is the largest cohort of fourth ventricle tumors described in the literature to date.

METHODS

This is an 18-year (1993–2010) retrospective review of 55 cases involving patients undergoing surgery for tumors of the fourth ventricle. Data included patient demographic characteristics, pathological and radiographic tumor characteristics, and surgical factors (approach, surgical adjuncts, extent of resection, etc.). The neurological and medical complications following resection were collected and outcomes at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year were reviewed to determine patient recovery. Patient, tumor, and surgical factors were analyzed to determine factors associated with the frequently encountered postoperative neurological complications.

RESULTS

There were no postoperative deaths. Gross-total resection was achieved in 75% of cases. Forty-five percent of patients experienced at least 1 major neurological complication, while 31% had minor complications only. New or worsening gait/focal motor disturbance (56%), speech/swallowing deficits (38%), and cranial nerve deficits (31%) were the most common neurological deficits in the immediate postoperative period. Of these, cranial nerve deficits were the least likely to resolve at follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that patients undergoing a transvermian approach had a higher incidence of postoperative cranial nerve deficits, gait disturbance, and speech/swallowing deficits than those treated with a telovelar approach. The use of surgical adjuncts (intraoperative navigation, neurophysiological monitoring) did not significantly affect neurological outcome. Twenty-two percent of patients required postoperative CSF diversion following tumor resection. Patients who required intraoperative ventriculostomy, those undergoing a transvermian approach, and pediatric patients (< 18 years old) were all more likely to require postoperative CSF diversion. Twenty percent of patients suffered at least 1 medical complication following tumor resection. Most complications were respiratory, with the most common being postoperative respiratory failure (14%), followed by pneumonia (13%).

CONCLUSIONS

The occurrence of complications after fourth ventricle tumor surgery is not rare. Postoperative neurological sequelae were frequent, but a substantial number of patients had neurological improvement at long-term followup. Of the neurological complications analyzed, postoperative cranial nerve deficits were the least likely to completely resolve at follow-up. Of all the patient, tumor, and surgical variables included in the analysis, surgical approach had the most significant impact on neurological morbidity, with the telovelar approach being associated with less morbidity.

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Adam S. Wu, Victoria T. Trinh, Dima Suki, Susan Graham, Arthur Forman, Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Ian E. McCutcheon, Sujit S. Prabhu, Amy B. Heimberger, Raymond Sawaya, Xuemei Wang, Wei Qiao, Kenneth R. Hess and Frederick F. Lang

Object

Seizures are a potentially devastating complication of resection of brain tumors. Consequently, many neurosurgeons administer prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the perioperative period. However, it is currently unclear whether perioperative AEDs should be routinely administered to patients with brain tumors who have never had a seizure. Therefore, the authors conducted a prospective, randomized trial examining the use of phenytoin for postoperative seizure prophylaxis in patients undergoing resection for supratentorial brain metastases or gliomas.

Methods

Patients with brain tumors (metastases or gliomas) who did not have seizures and who were undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection were randomized to receive either phenytoin for 7 days after tumor resection (prophylaxis group) or no seizure prophylaxis (observation group). Phenytoin levels were monitored daily. Primary outcomes were seizures and adverse events. Using an estimated seizure incidence of 30% in the observation arm and 10% in the prophylaxis arm, a Type I error of 0.05 and a Type II error of 0.20, a target accrual of 142 patients (71 per arm) was planned.

Results

The trial was closed before completion of accrual because Bayesian predictive probability analyses performed by an independent data monitoring committee indicated a probability of 0.003 that at the end of the study prophylaxis would prove superior to observation and a probability of 0.997 that there would be insufficient evidence at the end of the trial to choose either arm as superior. At the time of trial closure, 123 patients (77 metastases and 46 gliomas) were randomized, with 62 receiving 7-day phenytoin (prophylaxis group) and 61 receiving no prophylaxis (observation group). The incidence of all seizures was 18% in the observation group and 24% in the prophylaxis group (p = 0.51). Importantly, the incidence of early seizures (< 30 days after surgery) was 8% in the observation group compared with 10% in the prophylaxis group (p = 1.0). Likewise, the incidence of clinically significant early seizures was 3% in the observation group and 2% in the prophylaxis group (p = 0.62). The prophylaxis group experienced significantly more adverse events (18% vs 0%, p < 0.01). Therapeutic phenytoin levels were maintained in 80% of patients.

Conclusions

The incidence of seizures after surgery for brain tumors is low (8% [95% CI 3%–18%]) even without prophylactic AEDs, and the incidence of clinically significant seizures is even lower (3%). In contrast, routine phenytoin administration is associated with significant drug-related morbidity. Although the lower-than-anticipated incidence of seizures in the control group significantly limited the power of the study, the low baseline rate of perioperative seizures in patients with brain tumors raises concerns about the routine use of prophylactic phenytoin in this patient population.

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Marcos V. C. Maldaun, Shumaila N. Khawja, Nicholas B. Levine, Ganesh Rao, Frederick F. Lang, Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Sudhakar Tummala, Charles E. Cowles, David Ferson, Anh-Thuy Nguyen, Raymond Sawaya, Dima Suki and Sujit S. Prabhu

Object

The object of this study was to describe the experience of combining awake craniotomy techniques with high-field (1.5 T) intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex.

Methods

From a prospective database the authors obtained and evaluated the records of all patients who had undergone awake craniotomy procedures with cortical and subcortical mapping in the iMRI suite. The integration of these two modalities was assessed with respect to safety, operative times, workflow, extent of resection (EOR), and neurological outcome.

Results

Between February 2010 and December 2011, 42 awake craniotomy procedures using iMRI were performed in 41 patients for the removal of intraaxial tumors. There were 31 left-sided and 11 right-sided tumors. In half of the cases (21 [50%] of 42), the patient was kept awake for both motor and speech mapping. The mean duration of surgery overall was 7.3 hours (range 4.0–13.9 hours). The median EOR overall was 90%, and gross-total resection (EOR ≥ 95%) was achieved in 17 cases (40.5%). After viewing the first MR images after initial resection, further resection was performed in 17 cases (40.5%); the mean EOR in these cases increased from 56% to 67% after further resection. No deficits were observed preoperatively in 33 cases (78.5%), and worsening neurological deficits were noted immediately after surgery in 11 cases (26.2%). At 1 month after surgery, however, worsened neurological function was observed in only 1 case (2.3%).

Conclusions

There was a learning curve with regard to patient positioning and setup times, although it did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Awake craniotomy can be safely performed in a high-field (1.5 T) iMRI suite to maximize tumor resection in eloquent brain areas with an acceptable morbidity profile at 1 month.