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  • Author or Editor: Ryszard M. Pluta x
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R. Bryan Mason, Ryszard M. Pluta, Stuart Walbridge, David A. Wink, Edward H. Oldfield and Robert J. Boock

Object. Thrombolytic treatments for ischemic stroke can restore circulation, but reperfusion injury, mediated by oxygen free radicals, can limit their utility. The authors hypothesized that, during reperfusion, nitric oxide (NO) provides cytoprotection against oxygen free radical species.

Methods. Levels of NO and oxygen free radicals were determined in both reoxygenation in vitro and reperfusion in vivo models using an NO electrochemical probe and high-performance liquid chromatography with the 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid trapping method, before and after addition of the NO donor diethanolamine nitric oxide (DEA/NO).

Reoxygenation after anoxia produced a twofold increase in NO release by human fetal astrocytes and cerebral endothelial cells (p < 0.005). In both cell lines, there was also a two- to threefold increase in oxygen free radical production (p < 0.005). In human fetal astrocytes and cerebral endothelial cells given a single dose of DEA/NO, free radical production dropped fivefold compared with peak ischemic levels (p < 0.001). In a study in which a rat global cerebral ischemia model was used, NO production in a vehicle-treated group increased 48 ± 16% above baseline levels after reperfusion. After intravenous DEA/NO infusion, NO reached 1.6 times the concentration of the postischemic peak in vehicle-treated animals. In vehicle-treated animals during reperfusion, free radical production increased 4.5-fold over basal levels (p < 0.01). After intravenous DEA/NO infusion, free radical production dropped nearly 10-fold compared with peak levels in vehicle-treated animals (p < 0.006). The infarct volume in the vehicle-treated animals was 111 ± 16.9 mm3; after DEA/NO infusion it was 64.8 ± 23.4 mm3 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions. The beneficial effect of early restoration of cerebral circulation after cerebral ischemia is limited by reperfusion injury. These results indicate that NO release and oxygen free radical production increase during reperfusion, and suggest a possible early treatment of reperfusion injury using NO donors.

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Astrid Weyerbrock, Stuart Walbridge, Ryszard M. Pluta, Joseph E. Saavedra, Larry K. Keefer and Edward H. Oldfield

Object. The response of brain tumors to systemic chemotherapy is limited by the blood—tumor barrier (BTB). Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of vascular permeability and blood flow. The authors evaluated the effects of exogenous NO, which was released from a short-acting NO donor (Proli/NO), and those of NO metabolites on the capillary permeability of tumors and normal brain tissue by using quantitative autoradiography in a C6 glioma model in rats.

Methods. The Proli/NO was infused at a wide dose range (10−2 to 10−12 M) either intravenously or into the internal carotid artery (ICA) and demonstrated substantial tumor-selective increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in response to various-sized tracers ([14C]aminoisobutyric acid, [14C]sucrose, [14C]dextran). Internal carotid artery or intravenous administration of sodium nitrite had a comparable effect on BTB permeability. The NO effect on microvascular permeability could be obtained without causing hemodynamic side effects. The effect of NO on the efficacy of carboplatin chemotherapy was investigated in intracerebral C6 gliomas. Simultaneous intravenous infusions of Proli/NO (10−6 M) and carboplatin (20 mg/kg) led to long-term survival in 40% of rats harboring intracerebral C6 gliomas compared with control animals receiving ICA or intravenous infusions of carboplatin, Proli/NO, or vehicle alone. No residual tumor was demonstrated on histological or magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in rats treated with Proli/NO and carboplatin, and no toxicity was observed.

Conclusions. This new approach demonstrated the in vivo efficacy and safety of NO and nitrite in enhancing the delivery of systemically delivered radiolabeled tracers and carboplatin into rat gliomas. The NO-induced tumor-selective BBB disruption and intravenous carboplatin chemotherapy may be more efficacious than current chemotherapy strategies against brain tumors.