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Kazuya Motomura, Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Atsushi Natsume and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

lesions resulting in alexia with agraphia may be related to damage in common subcortical pathways necessary for reading and writing, including cerebral white matter tracts. Recent noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have enabled characterization of the neuroanatomical distribution of various functions within the brain. Regarding reading and alexia, previous fMRI studies have revealed that reading is performed by a dominant-hemisphere network of inferior frontal and temporoparietal areas that constitute a

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Masazumi Fujii, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuya Motomura, Miyako Futamura, Yuichiro Hayashi, Itsuko Koba and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

) who had brain tumors in the left frontal lobe. Inclusion criteria for the patients were as follows: right-handed adults with a glioma located mainly in the SFG or the middle frontal gyrus who underwent awake surgery. The patients also underwent preoperative DTI. Left-sided dominance was confirmed by functional MRI or the Wada test. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine and Nagoya University Hospital. The patients had the appropriate cognitive function to understand and decide on the treatment and

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Satoshi Maesawa, Masazumi Fujii, Miyako Futamura, Yuichiro Hayashi, Kentaro Iijima and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

T he human secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) was reported by Penfield and Jasper in 1954 through research on brain mapping with corticoelectrical stimulation. 24 The SII is functionally located in the parietal operculum on the ceiling of the sylvian fissure. This area has been recently examined by functional imaging methods, such as functional MRI and magnetoencephalography, and its functional role has been determined. 3 , 4 , 11 , 12 , 15 , 26 The contralateral primary somatosensory cortex processes and encodes the characteristics and intensities of

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Kazuya Motomura, Atsushi Natsume, Kentaro Iijima, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Masazumi Fujii, Takashi Yamamoto, Satoshi Maesawa, Junko Sugiura and Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Hemispheric language dominance was determined according to functional MRI findings or WADA testing. Functional MRI was performed using a MAGNETOM Verio (Siemens) 3.0-T scanner with a 32-channel head coil. WADA testing, performed as previously described, 32 was conducted by injecting propofol into the internal carotid artery. In addition, neurocognitive status and language function were assessed by speech therapists and occupational therapists using Standard Language Test of Aphasia, the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Wechsler Memory Scale

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Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Tomohide Nishikawa, Junya Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Toshihiko Wakabayashi and Atsushi Natsume

, functional MRI was performed to navigate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, as previously described. 27 , 29 All patients underwent neuropsychological testing 1 week before awake brain surgery and 6 months after surgery. The third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) 43 and the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised (WMS-R) 44 were used for neuropsychological assessment, and the results were evaluated by speech and occupational therapists. The WAIS-III provided scores for Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full IQ (FIQ), along with 4