Spontaneous spinal CSF leakage with the development of intracranial hypotension is a well-described entity. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks, mostly from the thoracic spine, are the major cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Conservative treatment options include hydration, oral caffeine, and epidural blood patching. Alternatively, open surgical correction of meningeal diverticula is a therapeutic option. The authors describe 4 cases of spontaneous spinal CSF leakage producing symptoms of intracranial hypotension. All patients had multiple spinal diverticula with an identified leaking level. The patients were treated using a minimally invasive approach via surgical correction of the meningeal diverticulum.
Report of 4 cases
Hamad I. Farhat, Brian Hood, Steven Vanni and Allan D. Levi
Matthew D. Cummock, Steven Vanni, Allan D. Levi, Yong Yu and Michael Y. Wang
The minimally invasive transpsoas interbody fusion technique requires dissection through the psoas muscle, which contains the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus posteriorly and genitofemoral nerve anteriorly. Retraction of the psoas is becoming recognized as a cause of transient postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness. However, few reports have described the nature of thigh symptoms after this procedure.
The authors performed a review of patients who underwent the transpsoas technique for lumbar spondylotic disease, disc degeneration, and spondylolisthesis treated at a single academic medical center. A review of patient charts, including the use of detailed patient-driven pain diagrams performed at equal preoperative and follow-up intervals, investigated the survival of postoperative thigh pain, numbness, paresthesias, and weakness of the iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles in the follow-up period on the ipsilateral side of the surgical approach.
Over a 3.2-year period, 59 patients underwent transpsoas interbody fusion surgery. Of these, 62.7% had thigh symptoms postoperatively. New thigh symptoms at first follow-up visit included the following: burning, aching, stabbing, or other pain (39.0%); numbness (42.4%); paresthesias (11.9%); and weakness (23.7%). At 3 months postoperatively, these percentages decreased to 15.5%, 24.1%, 5.6%, and 11.3%, respectively. Within the patient sample, 44% underwent a 1-level, 41% a 2-level, and 15% a 3-level transpsoas operation. While not statistically significant, thigh pain, numbness, and weakness were most prevalent after L4–5 transpsoas interbody fusion at the first postoperative follow-up. The number of lumbar levels that were surgically treated had no clear association with thigh symptoms but did correlate directly with surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and length of hospital stay.
Transpsoas interbody fusion is associated with high rates of immediate postoperative thigh symptoms. While larger, prospective studies are necessary to validate these findings, the authors found that half of the patients had symptom resolution at approximately 3 months postoperatively and more than 90% by 1 year.
Ricardo B. V. Fontes and Vincent C. Traynelis
Kevin S. Cahill, Joseph L. Martinez, Michael Y. Wang, Steven Vanni and Allan D. Levi
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of motor nerve injuries during the minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion procedure at a single academic medical center.
A retrospective chart review of 118 patients who had undergone lateral interbody fusion was performed. Both inpatient and outpatient records were examined to identify any new postoperative motor weakness in the lower extremities and abdominal wall musculature that was attributable to the operative procedure.
In the period from 2007 to 2011 the lateral interbody fusion procedure was attempted on 201 lumbar intervertebral disc levels. No femoral nerve injuries occurred at any disc level other than the L4–5 disc space. Among procedures involving the L4–5 level there were 2 femoral nerve injuries, corresponding to a 4.8% injury risk at this level as compared with a 0% injury risk at other lumbar spine levels. Five patients (4.2%) had postoperative abdominal flank bulge attributable to injury to the abdominal wall motor innervation.
The overall incidence of femoral nerve injury after the lateral transpsoas approach was 1.7%; however, the level-specific incidence was 4.8% for procedures performed at the L4–5 disc space. Approximately 4% of patients had postoperative abdominal flank bulge. Surgeons will be able to minimize these motor nerve injuries through judicious use of the procedure at the L4–5 level and careful attention to the T-11 and T-12 motor nerves during exposure and closure of the abdominal wall.
Joseph R. O'Brien and William D. Smith
Karthik Madhavan, Steven Vanni and Seth K. Williams
The medical management of discitis and osteomyelitis with long-term antibiotic therapy and bracing usually results in eradicated infection. Surgical management is appropriate when medical management fails and in some cases with pyogenic deformity or neurological deficit. The success of surgery depends on adequate debridement of the necrotic infected disc and vertebral body, along with anterior column reconstruction and vertebral stabilization. Debridement is typically performed via an anterior retroperitoneal approach, which can necessitate mobilization of the great vessels for proper exposure. Mobilization can be technically difficult and lead to vascular injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar discitis and osteomyelitis using a direct lateral retroperitoneal approach, which allows for thorough debridement and anterior column reconstruction while avoiding the need to mobilize the great vessels.
A retrospective chart analysis was performed for all patients who had presented with lumbar discitis and osteomyelitis and had undergone surgical management via the direct lateral retroperitoneal approach in the period from 2006 to 2013. Collected data included surgical blood loss, perioperative complications (wound infection, vascular injury, approach-related complications, and neurological injury), need for secondary procedures, microbiological and laboratory results, and efficacy of infection eradication. Imaging studies were reviewed as well.
Ten patients, 7 male and 3 female, underwent this procedure at the authors' institution in the defined period. Average blood loss was 272 ml (range 150–800 ml, with 800 ml in the only 2-level case). There were no vascular injuries. Average follow-up was 680 days, although 4 patients did not complete the follow-up beyond 6 months. Eight patients underwent immediate posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. Two patients did not undergo posterior instrumentation, and one of these developed a kyphotic deformity that required a secondary posterior procedure. Infection was eradicated in all patients according to a history, physical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory parameters (complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein). One patient developed a painful neuroma at the iliac crest harvest site, and one patient had a retroperitoneal hematoma. Otherwise, there were no approach-related neurological injuries or complications. Neither was there any postoperative surgical site infection.
The direct lateral approach for the surgical treatment of lumbar discitis and osteomyelitis allows for thorough debridement and spinal reconstruction without the need to mobilize the great vessels. This technique effectively eradicated infection in all cases, with reasonable blood loss and no vascular injuries. This approach should be considered as an alternative to the open anterior approach. The authors recommend posterior instrumentation to prevent the development of kyphosis.
Lee Onn Chieng, Karthik Madhavan and Steven Vanni
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most debilitating autoimmune diseases affecting the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Patients predominantly present with myelopathic symptoms and intractable neck pain. The surgical approach traditionally has been either a combined anterior and posterior approach or a posterior-only approach. In this article, the authors review pooled data from the literature and discuss the benefits of the two types of approaches.
A search of the PubMed database was conducted using key words that describe spine deformities in RA and specific spinal interventions. The authors evaluated the neurological outcomes based on the Ranawat scale in both the groups through chi-square analysis. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to further examine for potential confounders. Any adverse sequalae resulting from either approach were also documented. Because all the procedures performed via a transoral approach in the analyzed articles also involved posterior fixation, for convenience of comparison, the combined procedures are referred to as “anterior approach” or “anterior-posterior” in the present study.
The search yielded 233 articles, of which 11 described anterior approaches and 14 evaluated posterior approaches. The statistical analysis showed that patients treated with a posterior approach fared better than those treated with an anterior (combined) approach. It was noted that those patients in whom the cervical subluxations were reducible on traction predominantly underwent posterior approaches.
CVJ instability is a serious complication of RA that requires surgical intervention. Although the anterior-posterior combined approach can provide direct decompression, it is associated with morbidity, and the analysis showed no statistically significant benefit to patients. In contrast, the posterior approach has been shown to provide statistically significant superiority with respect to stabilization and subsequent pannus reduction. Surgical approaches are undertaken based on the reducibility of subluxations with traction and the vector of compressive force. However, the choice of surgical approach should be based on the individual patient's pathology.