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  • Author or Editor: Prasad Vannemreddy x
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Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy and James L. Stone

Fifty years before a report on the complete bitemporal lobectomy syndrome in primates, known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, was published, 2 talented investigators working at the University College in London, England—neurologist Sanger Brown and physiologist Edward Schäfer—also made this discovery. The title of their work was “An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the monkey’s brain,” and it involved excisional brain surgery in 12 monkeys. They were particularly interested in the then-disputed primary cortical locations relating to vision and hearing. However, following extensive bilateral temporal lobe excisions in 2 monkeys, they noted peculiar behavior including apparent loss of memory and intelligence resembling “idiocy.” These investigators recognized most of the behavioral findings that later came to be known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. However, they were working within the late-19th-century framework of cerebral cortical localizations of basic motor and sensory functions.

Details of the Brown and Schäfer study and a glimpse of the neurological thinking of that period is presented. In the decades following the pivotal work of Klüver and Bucy in the late 1930s, in which they used a more advanced neurosurgical technique, tools of behavioral observations, and analysis of brain sections after euthanasia, investigators have elaborated the full components of the clinical syndrome and the extent of their resections.

Other neuroscientists sought to isolate and determine the specific temporal neocortical, medial temporal, and deep limbic structures responsible for various visual and complex behavioral deficits. No doubt, Klüver and Bucy’s contribution led to a great expansion in attention given to the limbic system’s role in action, perception, emotion, and affect—a tide that continues to the present time.

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James L. Stone, Aditi Gulabani, Gleb Gorelick, Siddharth N. K. Vannemreddy and Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy


Halo orthosis placement is a common neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of cervical spine injuries. Frontal sinus puncture by the anterior pins may occur using standard techniques, and up to 30% are dissatisfied with forehead scarring, especially women and African Americans.


The authors describe a frontolateral (FL) anterior pin site placement supported by high-resolution CT scan skull thickness measurements. The standard supraorbital (SO) pin site is several centimeters above the lateral orbit, whereas the FL pin site is 2–3 cm posterolateral to the SO site. Frontolateral placement is just anterior to the temporalis muscle close to a triangular anterior projection of the temporal hairline. For quantitative information on skull thickness at the SO and FT pin sites, thin 0.625-mm CT scan measurements of the outer table, diploic space, and inner table were obtained in 40 adults (80 sites).


The mean values for total skull thickness at the SO and FT sites were not significantly different. The inner table was significantly thicker at the FL site in both males and females, buttressed by the nearby greater sphenoid wing. The mean total skull thickness was significantly less in females than in males, but the values were not significantly different at the SO and FL sites.


The FL and SO anterior pin sites are comparable with respect to skull thickness CT measurements, with a significantly thicker inner table at the FL site. In the senior author's experience, the FL anterior pin site yielded secure fixation without skull perforation, neurovascular injury, or propensity to infection. The cosmetic result of the FL site is more acceptable, and the authors recommend its general usage be adopted.

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Roy A. E. Bakay and Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy

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Anil Nanda, David A. Vincent, Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy, Mustafa K. Baskaya and Amitabha Chanda

Object. The goal of this study was to determine whether drilling out the occipital condyle facilitates surgery via the far-lateral approach by comparing data from 10 clinical cases with that from studies of eight cadaver heads.

Methods. During the last 6 years at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center—Shreveport, 10 patients underwent surgery via the far-lateral approach to the foramen magnum. Six of these patients harbored anterior foramen magnum meningiomas, one patient a dermoid cyst, two patients vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms, and an additional patient suffered from rheumatoid disease of the craniocervical junction. The surgical approach consisted of retromastoid craniectomy and C-1 laminectomy.

The seven tumors and the pannus of rheumatoid disease were completely excised, and the two aneurysms were clipped without drilling the occipital condyle. In one patient a chronic subdural hematoma was found 3 months after surgery, but no patient displayed any complication associated with surgery. It is significant that in no patient was a cerebrospinal fluid leak present. All patients experienced improved neurological function postoperatively.

To compare surgical visibility, eight cadaveric specimens (16 sides) were studied, including delineation of the VA and its segments around the craniocervical junction. Increase in visibility as a function of fractional removal of the occipital condyle was quantified by measuring the degrees of visibility gained by removing one third and one half of the occipital condyle. Removal of one third of the occipital condyle produced a mean increase of 15.9° visibility, and removal of one half produced a mean increase of 19.9°.

Conclusions. On the basis of their findings the authors conclude that removal of the occipital condyle is not necessary for the safe and complete resection of anterior intradural foramen magnum tumors.

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Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy, Marjorie Fowler, Richard S. Polin, John R. Todd and Anil Nanda

✓ Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain neoplasm, but generally it is not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a 29-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary CNS lymphoma was suspected, making a definitive histological diagnosis crucial. An initial stereotactic biopsy sample was insufficient to establish a diagnosis and a second biopsy of the lesion was obtained. The histopathological investigation confirmed GBM and adjuvant external radiation treatment was given to the patient, who survived for 4 months after the initial biopsy. A decline in the rate of Toxoplasma infection and the changing diseases observed in HIV infection indicate the importance of obtaining a biopsy in cases of CNS mass lesions.

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Roy A. E. Bakay and Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy