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  • Author or Editor: Alberto Franzin x
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Marco Losa, Micol Valle, Pietro Mortini, Alberto Franzin, Camillo Ferrari da Passano, Marco Cenzato, Stefania Bianchi, Piero Picozzi and Massimo Giovanelli

Object. Radiation therapy diminishes the risk of recurrence of incompletely removed nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NPA). The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of gamma knife surgery (GKS) in patients with residual NPA following surgical debulking of the tumor.

Methods. Fifty-four patients, 26 men and 28 women, ranging in age from 29 to 72 years underwent gamma knife treatment. Baseline and follow-up studies involved magnetic resonance imaging, hormone evaluation, and neuroophthalmological examination 6 and 12 months after GKS and at yearly intervals thereafter. The mean follow up after GKS was 41.1 ± 3.1 months. Two of 52 patients undergoing follow up had a recurrence 40 and 49 months after GKS. In both of these patients the treated lesion had reduced in size, but a new lesion appeared in the contralateral side of the sella turcica. The recurrence-free interval at 5 years was 88.2% (95% confidence interval 72.6–100%). Tumor volume decreased from a baseline value of 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.7 ± 0.2 cm3 at the last follow up (p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients (42.3%) had a 20% or greater reduction in tumor volume. The administered radiation dose had been significantly higher in patients who experienced tumor reduction. Visual function and motility did not deteriorate in any patient. New cases of hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and hypoadrenalism occurred in 12.5, 8.6, and 2.3%, respectively, of assessable patients at risk.

Conclusions. Gamma knife surgery was effective in controlling the growth of residual NPA after previously performed maximal surgical debulking. The major advantage of GKS compared with fractionated radiotherapy seems to be a lower risk of side effects, especially a lower risk of hypopituitarism.

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Alberto Franzin, Alberto Vimercati, Marzia Medone, Carlo Serra, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Maddalena Forti, Lorenzo Gioia, Micol Valle and Piero Picozzi


Treatment options for patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) include microsurgical tumor resection, radiotherapy, and radiosurgery. Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is increasingly being used because it is associated with lower mortality and morbidity rates than microsurgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of GKS in the treatment of CSM and to thoroughly analyze the clinical response to GKS.


Between January 2001 and December 2005, 123 patients (25 men and 98 women; mean age 62.6 ± 11 years, range 31–86 years) who underwent treatment for CSMs were included in this study. Of these, 41 patients underwent microsurgery before GKS, whereas the remaining 82 had GKS as a first-line therapy after a diagnosis was made based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Dysfunction in cranial nerves (CNs) II, III, IV, V, and VI was noted in 74 patients at the time of GKS. The mean tumor volume was 7.99 cm3 (0.7–30.5 cm3). The mean prescription dose to the tumor margin was 13.8 ± 1.1 Gy (range 10–20 Gy).


The overall tumor control rate was 98.4% with a median follow-up of 36 months. The actuarial tumor control rate at 5 years was 90.5%. A reduction in tumor volume was observed in 53 patients (43.1%), whereas in 68 patients (55.3%) no volumetric variation was recorded. Of the 74 patients who presented with CN deficits, improvement was noted in 23 (31.1%).


Gamma Knife surgery is a useful treatment for CSM both as a first- or second-line therapy. It is a safe and effective treatment for tumors located close to the optic pathways.