Multiple meningiomas account for 1%–10% of meningiomas. This study describes epidemiological aspects of the disease and its management, which is more challenging than for single tumors.
A consecutive series of adult patients with ≥ 2 spatially separated meningiomas was reviewed. Patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 were excluded. The authors collected clinical, imaging, histological, and treatment data to obtain information on epidemiology, management options, and outcomes of active treatment and surveillance.
A total of 133 consecutive patients were included over 25 years, with a total of 395 synchronous and 53 metachronous meningiomas, and a median of 2 tumors per patient. One hundred six patients had sporadic disease, 26 had radiation-induced disease, and 1 had familial meningiomatosis. At presentation, half of the patients were asymptomatic. In terms of their maximum cross-sectional diameter, the tumors were small (≤ 2 cm) in 67% and large (> 4 cm) in 11% of the meningiomas. Fifty-four patients had upfront treatment, and 31 had delayed treatment after an observation period (mean 4 years). One in 4 patients had ≥ 2 meningiomas treated. Overall, 64% of patients had treatment for 142 tumors—67 with surgery and 18 with radiotherapy alone. The mean follow-up was 7 years, with 13% of treated patients receiving salvage therapy. Approximately 1 in 4 patients who underwent surgery had ≥ 1 WHO Grade II or III meningioma. Meningiomas of different histological subtypes and grades in the same patient were not uncommon.
Multiple meningiomas are often asymptomatic, probably because the majority are small and a significant proportion are induced by radiation. Approximately two-thirds of patients with multiple meningiomas require therapy, but only one-third of all meningiomas need active treatment. The authors recommend surveillance for stable and asymptomatic meningiomas and therapy for those that are symptomatic or growing.