✓ In order to elucidate some of the signal transduction processes in human meningioma cells, the authors studied the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bromocriptine on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, using low-passage human meningioma cells in culture. Epidermal growth factor is a well-studied mitogenic factor for meningioma cells, whereas bromocriptine is known to have an inhibitory effect on meningioma cell proliferation. The addition of EGF to meningioma cells caused stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation in a dose-dependent manner at 60 minutes posttreatment, with the maximum effect (120% to 167% of control) achieved at a concentration of 10 ng/ml. Extraction of separate inositol phosphates revealed that inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol bisphosphate (IP2), but not inositol trisphosphate (IP3), accounted for the increase at 60 minutes. Kinetic analysis of EGF-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis showed that a sharp and transient increase in IP3 from 5 to 12 minutes post-EGF and a transient but more gradual increase in IP2 from 2 to 12 minutes post-EGF were followed by a gradual and steady increase in IP1, which was significantly greater than control after 5 minutes. On the other hand, long-term studies showed a down-regulation of inositol phosphate accumulation (a 64% decrease vs. control) after 7 days of treatment with EGF (10 ng/ml). Bromocriptine (5 µM) exhibited no significant effect on inositol phosphate accumulation at 60 minutes in four of five meningiomas studied. However, of two meningiomas studied with bromocriptine in combination with EGF, both showed a significant additive increase in inositol phosphate accumulation compared to those treated with EGF alone. The results suggest a close involvement of inositol phospholipid turnover in human meningioma cells in response to mitogenic stimulation by EGF.
Tomoki Todo and Rudolf Fahlbusch
Tomoki Todo, Eric F. Adams and Rudolf Fahlbusch
✓ In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that meningioma cells secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like molecules that stimulate their own growth in an autocrine manner. Based on that finding, a study was undertaken to examine the effect of trapidil, a drug known to have an antagonistic action against PDGF, on cell proliferation of human meningiomas in culture. Trapidil showed a dose-dependent inhibition of meningioma cell proliferation in the absence of any exogenous mitogenic stimulation. The maximum effect was observed at a concentration of 100 µg/ml, with the decrease in cell growth ranging from 16% to 54% compared to control samples. Trapidil similarly inhibited the basal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation in three of seven meningiomas. While the conditioned medium generated from meningioma cells remarkably stimulated the proliferation of meningioma cells (166% to 277% of control), this effect was strikingly inhibited by the addition of trapidil. Trapidil also inhibited conditioned medium-stimulated DNA synthesis, even when there was no effect on basal DNA synthesis. Furthermore, trapidil significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated proliferation of meningioma cells. This inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated cell proliferation was also observed in nontumorous fibroblasts, demonstrating that trapidil is not an antagonist specific to PDGF. The addition of trapidil (30 µg/ml) in combination with bromocriptine (1 µM) showed an additive inhibitory effect on the meningioma cell growth compared to trapidil or bromocriptine alone. The overall results suggest that trapidil exhibits an inhibitory effect on meningioma cell proliferation through blocking the mitogenic stimulation induced by autocrine or exogenous growth factors, and may be considered as a possible new approach to the medical treatment of meningiomas.
Tomoki Todo, Eric F. Adams, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Theodor Dingermann and Herbert Werner
✓ The authors have previously shown that meningioma-derived conditioned medium profoundly stimulates the in vitro proliferation of meningioma cells. In this paper, self-mitogenic agents found in the conditioned medium—autocrine growth-stimulatory factors actually secreted by human meningioma cells—are characterized as proteins related to the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and possibly to the A chain of PDGF as well. The addition to conditioned medium of a neutralizing antibody against PDGF-BB caused a significant inhibition of the conditioned medium—stimulated DNA synthesis in all three meningioma cultures studied. A similar neutralizing effect was observed with an anti—PDGF-AA antibody in one meningioma culture studied. Gel filtration chromatography of concentrated conditioned medium from two different meningiomas using a Sephadex G-100 column revealed similar profiles from both conditioned media with a major peak of mitogenic activity against meningioma cells at a molecular weight (Mr) of approximately 32 to 36 kD, accompanied by a minor peak at approximately 22 kD. The major peak mitogenic activity was significantly reduced by addition of an anti—PDGF-BB antibody. Western blot analysis of protein extracts from five meningioma specimens was performed using a monoclonal antibody against the B chain of PDGF, and a major band of PDGF-B immunoreactivity was detected at an Mr of approximately 19 kD in all five meningiomas under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Exogenous human and porcine PDGFs both exhibited a significant dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis in two of three and three of five meningioma cultures examined, respectively. Although not all meningiomas investigated proved to share the biological activity associated with PDGF and these results may be preliminary, it seems that the autocrine growth-stimulatory loop established by PDGF-B—related molecules plays an important functional role in meningioma cell proliferation.
Tomoki Todo, Eric F. Adams, Brian Rafferty, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Theodor Dingermann and Herbert Werner
✓ Using cell culture techniques, the authors have previously shown that human meningioma cells secrete an autocrine growth stimulator related to platelet-derived growth factor. Here, they further demonstrate potential autocrine inhibitory regulation of meningioma cell growth by interleukin (IL)-6. Constitutive IL-6 production was detected in all meningiomas studied, in the form of protein as well as IL-6-specific messenger ribonucleic acid. The IL-6 immunoreactivity in conditioned medium from three different meningioma cultures eluted from a Sephadex G-100 column was evidenced by a single peak corresponding to a molecular weight of about 32 kD. Interleukin-6 secretion was remarkably stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-4, and was also influenced by a combination of epidermal growth factor and bromocriptine. Recombinant IL-6 exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on meningioma cell proliferation. The maximum effect was observed at concentrations of 10 to 100 pg/ml, with the decrease in thymidine incorporation ranging from 21% to 35% versus control. Addition of an anti-IL-6 antibody enhanced the growth-stimulating effect of meningioma-derived conditioned medium. The rate of IL-6 secretion tended to show an inverse correlation with meningioma growth rate. The results presented here and the previous results suggest that the regulation of meningioma cell proliferation is defined by a complex network of autocrine stimulation, autocrine inhibition, and influences from multiple exogenous factors.