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  • Author or Editor: Neil D. Kitchen x
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Neil L. Dorward, Olaf Alberti, James D. Palmer, Neil D. Kitchen and David G. T. Thomas

✓ The authors present the results of accuracy measurements, obtained in both laboratory phantom studies and an in vivo assessment, for a technique of frameless stereotaxy. An instrument holder was developed to facilitate stereotactic guidance and enable introduction of frameless methods to traditional frame-based procedures. The accuracy of frameless stereotaxy was assessed for images acquired using 0.5-tesla or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or 2-mm axial, 3-mm axial, or 3-mm helical computerized tomography (CT) scanning. A clinical series is reported in which biopsy samples were obtained using a frameless stereotactic procedure, and the accuracy of these procedures was assessed using postoperative MR images and image fusion.

The overall mean error of phantom frameless stereotaxy was found to be 1.3 mm (standard deviation [SD] 0.6 mm). The mean error for CT-directed frameless stereotaxy was 1.1 mm (SD 0.5 mm) and that for MR image—directed procedures was 1.4 mm (SD 0.7 mm). The CT-guided frameless stereotaxy was significantly more accurate than MR image—directed stereotaxy (p = 0.0001). In addition, 2-mm axial CT-guided stereotaxy was significantly more accurate than 3-mm axial CT-guided stereotaxy (p = 0.025). In the clinical series of 21 frameless stereotactically obtained biopsies, all specimens yielded the appropriate diagnosis and no complications ensued. Early postoperative MR images were obtained in 16 of these cases and displacement of the biopsy site from the intraoperative target was determined by fusion of pre- and postoperative image data sets. The mean in vivo linear error of frameless stereotactic biopsy sampling was 2.3 mm (SD 1.9 mm). The mean in vivo Euclidean error was 4.8 mm (SD 2 mm). The implications of these accuracy measurements and of error in stereotaxy are discussed.

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Neil L. Dorward, Olaf Alberti, Binti Velani, Frans A. Gerritsen, William F. J. Harkness, Neil D. Kitchen and David G. T. Thomas

This prospective study was conducted to quantify brain shifts during open cranial surgery, to determine correlations between these shifts and image characteristics, and to assess the impact of postimaging brain distortion on neuronavigation.

During 48 operations, movements of the cortex on opening, the deep tumor margin, and the cortex at completion were measured relative to the preoperative image position with the aid of an image-guidance system. Bone surface offset was used to assess system accuracy and correct for registration errors. Preoperative images were examined for the presence of edema and to determine tumor volume, midline shift, and depth of the lesion below the skin surface. Results were analyzed for all cases together and separately for four tumor groups: 13 meningiomas, 18 gliomas, 11 nonglial intraaxial lesions, and six skull base lesions.

For all 48 cases the mean shift of the cortex after dural opening was 4.6 mm, shift of the deep tumor margin was 5.1 mm, and shift of the cortex at completion was 6.7 mm. Each tumor group displayed unique patterns of shift, with significantly greater shift at depth in meningiomas than gliomas (p = 0.007) and significantly less shift in skull base cases than other groups (p < 0.003). Whereas the preoperative image characteristics correlating with shift of the cortex on opening were the presence of edema and depth of the tumor below skin surface, predictors of shift at depth were the presence of edema, the lesion volume, midline shift, and magnitude of shift of the cortex on opening.

This study quantified intraoperative brain distortion, determined the different behavior of tumors in four pathological groups, and identified preoperative predictors of shift with which the reliability of neuronavigation may be estimated.

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Neil L. Dorward, Olaf Alberti, Binti Velani, Frans A. Gerritsen, William F. J. Harkness, Neil D. Kitchen and David G. T. Thomas

Object. This prospective study was conducted to quantify brain shifts during open cranial surgery, to determine correlations between these shifts and image characteristics, and to assess the impact of postimaging brain distortion on neuronavigation.

Methods. During 48 operations, movements of the cortex on opening, the deep tumor margin, and the cortex at completion were measured relative to the preoperative image position with the aid of an image-guidance system. Bone surface offset was used to assess system accuracy and correct for registration errors. Preoperative images were examined for the presence of edema and to determine tumor volume, midline shift, and depth of the lesion below the skin surface. Results were analyzed for all cases together and separately for four tumor groups: 13 meningiomas, 18 gliomas, 11 nonglial intraaxial lesions, and six skull base lesions.

For all 48 cases the mean shift of the cortex after dural opening was 4.6 mm, shift of the deep tumor margin was 5.1 mm, and shift of the cortex at completion was 6.7 mm. Each tumor group displayed unique patterns of shift, with significantly greater shift at depth in meningiomas than gliomas (p = 0.007) and significantly less shift in skull base cases than other groups (p = 0.003). Whereas the preoperative image characteristics correlating with shift of the cortex on opening were the presence of edema and depth of the tumor below skin surface, predictors of shift at depth were the presence of edema, the lesion volume, midline shift, and magnitude of shift of the cortex on opening.

Conclusions. This study quantified intraoperative brain distortion, determined the different behavior of tumors in four pathological groups, and identified preoperative predictors of shift with which the reliability of neuronavigation may be estimated.