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Charles H. Tator, Kotoo Meguro and David W. Rowed

T here is still considerable controversy about the indications for surgery and the methods of surgical treatment in syringomyelia. 4, 10 Although the etiology and natural history of this disease are quite variable, 10, 16 surgical treatment has usually been recommended for patients with rapidly deteriorating neurological function. Gardner 4 has strongly advocated the hydrodynamic theory for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia, and decompression of the hind-brain with closure of the obex has been the surgical treatment of choice in many centers. As a result

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Robert L. Macdonald, J. Max Findlay and Charles H. Tator

P osttraumatic progressive myelopathy is an increasingly recognized clinical problem after spinal cord injury, with recent series indicating a prevalence of approximately 3% among spinal cordinjured patients. 15 This delayed neurological deterioration after spinal cord injury represents an enormous threat to the already disabled patient, and it is imperative that the clinician recognize any potentially correctable cause. This disorder is usually attributed to posttraumatic syringomyelia, 1, 5 although other possible causes include arachnoiditis, 3, 19

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Jennifer Strahle and Cormac O. Maher

– 61 , 2010 4 Meadows J , Kraut M , Guarnieri M , Haroun RI , Carson BS : Asymptomatic Chiari Type I malformations identified on magnetic resonance imaging . J Neurosurg 92 : 920 – 926 , 2000 5 Mikulis DJ , Diaz O , Egglin TK , Sanchez R : Variance of the position of the cerebellar tonsils with age: preliminary report . Radiology 183 : 725 – 728 , 1992 6 Rocque BG , George TM , Kestle J , Iskandar BJ : Treatment practices for Chiari malformation Type I with syringomyelia: results of a survey of the American

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24 * vascular alterations 100  space adhesions 100 direct damage in spinal 18.4 * fibrosis 68.7  cord due to wires absence or hypotrophy 54.2 arachnoid cysts 10.9  of roots syringomyelia 8.3 osteophytes or herniated 45.8  discs bone grafts 34.4 * Related to 125 patients with segmental spinal instrumentation. The damage to the blood vessel in all of our patients was severe. For this reason, I agree with the argument put forth by Perovitch 4 that

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Charles H. Tator, Hannah S. Davis, Paul A. Dufort, Maria Carmella Tartaglia, Karen D. Davis, Ahmed Ebraheem and Carmen Hiploylee

Psychiatry 24 : 243 – 250 , 2011 34 Shenton ME , Hamoda HM , Schneiderman JS , Bouix S , Pasternak O , Rathi Y , : A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury . Brain Imaging Behav 6 : 137 – 192 , 2012 35 Speer MC , Enterline DS , Mehltretter L , Hammock P , Joseph J , Dickerson M , : Chiari Type I malformation with or without syringomyelia: prevalence and genetics . J Genet Couns 12 : 297 – 311 , 2003 36 Tator CH : Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: how

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James S. Harrop, Robin Hashimoto, Dan Norvell, Annie Raich, Bizhan Aarabi, Robert G. Grossman, James D. Guest, Charles H. Tator, Jens Chapman and Michael G. Fehlings

systematic review Variable Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria intervention cell-based therapies (including, but not limited to stem cells, fetal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, & Schwann cells) intended to improve neurological function cell-based therapies aimed at treating spasticity, pain, complications from the SCI (except posttraumatic syringomyelia), or arachnoiditis; tissue-based therapies; pharmacological therapies comparators placebo, standard care, physical therapy none population patients w/ blunt force traumatic SCI