Hematoma enlargement is a major cause of poor outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A combination of rapid administration of antifibrinolytics and strict blood pressure (BP) control for prevention of hematoma enlargement has been recently reported. The authors examined the incidence and predictors of hematoma enlargement in patients with ICH who were treated with this therapy.
Rapid administration of antifibrinolytic agents consisted of intravenous administration of 2 g tranexamic acid over 10 minutes. Systolic BP was strictly maintained below 150 mm Hg using intravenous nicardipine. Immediately after diagnosis of ICH on computed tomography (CT), 188 patients who were admitted within 24 hours of symptom onset were treated with a combination of rapid administration of antifibrinolytic agents and BP control. Hematoma enlargement was determined on the basis of a second CT scan performed the day after admission. Several factors, including those that have been reported to affect hematoma enlargement, were compared between patients with and without hematoma enlargement.
Hematoma enlargement (≥ 20% volume increase) was observed in eight (4.3%) of 188 patients. Previous use of antiplatelet agents was significantly more frequent in patients with hematoma enlargement (p < 0.05). No significant between-group difference was found for any other factors.
Previous use of antiplatelet agents was a predictor of hematoma enlargement in patients with ICH treated with rapid administration of antifibrinolytic agents and BP control.