✓ A 53-year-old man presented with recurrence of a neurenteric cyst with malignant transformation in the foramen magnum 3.5 years after total resection of the original tumor had been reported. For 2 years following the initial surgery, the patient had been in good condition, but then underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for intracranial hypertension. At the time there was no evidence of recurrence of the tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) images. One and one-half years later, he presented with headache and anorexia. A massive recurrent tumor was identified on MR images. The tumor was severely adhesive to the brainstem, cranial nerves, and vessels, allowing only partial resection. Histological examination of tumor specimens obtained during the first and second craniotomies indicated a malignant change from a typical neurenteric cyst with a one-layer epithelium in the first specimen to an adenocarcinoma with papillary proliferation in the second. The results of various immunohistochemical studies of the first specimen were typical of those of a neurenteric cyst. The second specimen displayed stronger staining of carbohydrate 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigens than the initial specimen. The percentage of Ki-67 antigen (MIB-1)—positive cells increased from 0% in the first specimen to 6.7% in the second. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case in which malignant transformation has been demonstrated after total resection of a neurenteric cyst in the foramen magnum.