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  • Author or Editor: Laurent Capelle x
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Hugues Duffau, Peggy Gatignol, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Laurent Capelle and Luc Taillandier

Object

Despite better knowledge of cortical language organization, its subcortical anatomofunctional connectivity remains poorly understood. The authors used intraoperative subcortical stimulation in awake patients undergoing operation for a glioma in the left dominant hemisphere to map the language pathways and to determine the contribution of such a method to surgical results.

Methods

One hundred fifteen patients harboring a World Health Organization Grade II glioma within language areas underwent operation after induction of local anesthesia, using direct electrical stimulation to perform online cortical and subcortical language mapping throughout the resection.

Results

After detection of cortical language sites, the authors identified 1 or several of the following subcortical language pathways in all patients: 1) arcuate fasciculus, eliciting phonemic paraphasia when stimulated; 2) inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, generating semantic paraphasia when stimulated; 3) subcallosal fasciculus, inducing transcortical motor aphasia during stimulation; 4) frontoparietal phonological loop, eliciting speech apraxia during stimulation; and 5) fibers coming from the ventral premotor cortex, inducing anarthria when stimulated. These structures were preserved, representing the limits of the resection. Despite a transient immediate postoperative worsening, all but 2 patients (98%) returned to baseline or better. On control MR imaging, 83% of resections were total or subtotal.

Conclusions

These results represent the largest experience with human subcortical language mapping ever reported. The use of intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation gives a unique opportunity to perform an accurate and reliable real-time anatomofunctional study of language connectivity. Such knowledge of the individual organization of language networks enables practitioners to optimize the benefit-to-risk ratio of surgery for Grade II glioma within the left dominant hemisphere.

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Mitchel S. Berger

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Hugues Duffau, Laurent Capelle, Dominique Denvil, Nicole Sichez, Peggy Gatignol, Luc Taillandier, Manuel Lopes, Mary-Christine Mitchell, Sabine Roche, Jean-Charles Muller, Ahmad Bitar, Jean-Pierre Sichez and Rémy van Effenterre

Object. Although a growing number of authors currently advocate surgery to treat low-grade gliomas, controversy still persists, especially because of the risk of inducing neurological sequelae when the tumor is located within eloquent brain areas. Many researchers performing preoperative neurofunctional imaging and intraoperative electrophysiological methods have recently reported on the usefulness of cortical functional mapping. Despite the frequent involvement of subcortical structures by these gliomas, very few investigators have specifically raised the subject of fiber tracking. The authors in this report describe the importance of mapping cortical and subcortical functional regions by using intraoperative realtime direct electrical stimulations during resection of low-grade gliomas.

Methods. Between 1996 and 2001, 103 patients harboring a corticosubcortical low-grade glioma in an eloquent area, with no or only mild deficit, had undergone surgery during which intraoperative electrical mapping of functional cortical sites and subcortical pathways was performed throughout the procedure.

Both eloquent cortical areas and corresponding white fibers were systematically detected and preserved, thus defining the resection boundaries. Despite an 80% rate of immediate postoperative neurological worsening, 94% of patients recovered their preoperative status within 3 months—10% even improved—and then returned to a normal socioprofessional life. Eighty percent of resections were classified as total or subtotal based on control magnetic resonance images.

Conclusions. The use of functional mapping of the white matter together with cortical mapping allowed the authors to optimize the benefit/risk ratio of surgery of low-grade glioma invading eloquent regions. Given that preoperative fiber tracking with the aid of neuroimaging is not yet validated, we used intraoperative real-time cortical and subcortical stimulations as a valuable adjunct to the other mapping methods.

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Laurent Capelle, Denys Fontaine, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Jean Louis Golmard, Luc Bauchet, Johan Pallud, Philippe Peruzzi, Marie Hélène Baron, Michèle Kujas, Jacques Guyotat, Remi Guillevin, Marc Frenay, Sophie Taillibert, Philippe Colin, Valérie Rigau, Fanny Vandenbos, Catherine Pinelli, Hugues Duffau and for the French Réseau d'Étude des Gliomes (REG)

Object

The spontaneous prognostic factors and optimal therapeutic strategy for WHO Grade II gliomas (GIIGs) have yet to be unanimously defined. Specifically, the role of resection is still debated, most notably because the actual amount of resection has seldom been assessed.

Methods

Cases of GIIGs treated before December 2007 were extracted from a multicenter database retrospectively collected since January 1985 and prospectively collected since 1996. Inclusion criteria were a patient age ≥ 18 years at diagnosis, histological diagnosis of WHO GIIG, and MRI evaluation of tumor volume at diagnosis and after initial surgery. One thousand ninety-seven lesions were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up was 7.4 years since radiological diagnosis. Factors significant in a univariate analysis (with a p value ≤ 0.1) were included in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis.

Results

At the time of radiological diagnosis, independent spontaneous factors of a poor prognosis were an age ≥ 55 years, an impaired functional status, a tumor location in a nonfrontal area, and, most of all, a larger tumor size. When the study starting point was set at the time of first treatment, independent favorable prognostic factors were limited to a smaller tumor size, an epileptic symptomatology, and a greater extent of resection.

Conclusions

This large series with its volumetric assessment refines the prognostic value of previously stressed clinical and radiological parameters and highlights the importance of tumor size and location. The results support additional arguments in favor of the predominant role of resection, in accordance with recently reported experiences.

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Sophie Peeters, Mélanie Pagès, Guillaume Gauchotte, Catherine Miquel, Stéphanie Cartalat-Carel, Jean-Sébastien Guillamo, Laurent Capelle, Jean-Yves Delattre, Patrick Beauchesne, Marc Debouverie, Denys Fontaine, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Jean Stecken, Philippe Menei, Olivier De Witte, Philippe Colin, Didier Frappaz, Thierry Lesimple, Luc Bauchet, Manuel Lopes, Laurence Bozec, Elisabeth Moyal, Christophe Deroulers, Pascale Varlet, Marc Zanello, Fabrice Chretien, Catherine Oppenheim, Hugues Duffau, Luc Taillandier and Johan Pallud

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to provide insight into the influence of gliomas on gestational outcomes, the impact of pregnancy on gliomas, and the identification of patients at risk.

METHODS

In this multiinstitutional retrospective study, the authors identified 52 pregnancies in 50 women diagnosed with a glioma.

RESULTS

For gliomas known prior to pregnancy (n = 24), we found the following: 1) An increase in the quantified imaging growth rates occurred during pregnancy in 87% of cases. 2) Clinical deterioration occurred in 38% of cases, with seizures alone resolving after delivery in 57.2% of cases. 3) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 25% of cases. For gliomas diagnosed during pregnancy (n = 28), we demonstrated the following: 1) The tumor was discovered during the second and third trimesters in 29% and 54% of cases, respectively, with seizures being the presenting symptom in 68% of cases. 2) The quantified imaging growth rates did not significantly decrease after delivery and before oncological treatment. 3) Clinical deterioration resolved after delivery in 21.4% of cases. 4) Oncological treatments were immediately performed after delivery in 70% of cases. Gliomas with a high grade of malignancy, negative immunoexpression of alpha-internexin, or positive immunoexpression for p53 were more likely to be associated with tumor progression during pregnancy. Deliveries were all uneventful (cesarean section in 54.5% of cases and vaginal delivery in 45.5%), and the infants were developmentally normal.

CONCLUSIONS

When a woman harboring a glioma envisions a pregnancy, or when a glioma is discovered in a pregnant patient, the authors suggest informing her and her partner that pregnancy may impact the evolution of the glioma clinically and radiologically. They strongly advise a multidisciplinary approach to management.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: association; study design: case series; evidence: Class IV.