Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Andreas W. Unterberg x
  • By Author: Stover, John F. x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

John F. Stover, Nils-Kristian Dohse and Andreas W. Unterberg

Object. Identification of new therapeutic agents aimed at attenuating posttraumatic brain edema formation remains an unresolved challenge. Among others, activation of bradykinin B2 receptors is known to mediate the formation of brain edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of the novel nonpeptide B2 receptor antagonist, LF 16-0687Ms, in brain-injured rats.

Methods. Focal contusion was produced by controlled cortical impact injury. Five minutes after trauma, the rats received a single dose of no, low- (3 mg/kg body weight), or high- (30 mg/kg) dose LF 16-0687Ms. After 24 hours, the amount of brain swelling and hemispheric water content were determined. Low and high doses of LF 16-0687Ms significantly reduced brain swelling by 25% and 27%, respectively (p < 0.03). Hemispheric water content tended to be increased in the nontraumatized hemisphere.

In a subsequent series of 10 rats, cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to determine whether changes in substances associated with edema formation could clarify why LF 16-0687Ms increases water content. For this, the volume regulator amino acid taurine, the excitatory transmitter glutamate, and the adenosine triphosphate degradation products hypoxanthine and xanthine were measured. In CSF, the levels of taurine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine were significantly decreased following a single administration of LF 16-0687Ms (p < 0.005); the level of glutamate, however, was double that found in control animals (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. Using the present study design, a single administration of LF 16-0687Ms successfully reduced posttraumatic brain swelling. The decreased levels of taurine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine may reflect reduced posttraumatic brain edema, whereas the increased level of glutamate could account for the elevated water content observed in the nontraumatized hemisphere.

Restricted access

John F. Stover, Britta Schöning, Oliver W. Sakowitz, Christian Woiciechowsky and Andreas W. Unterberg

Object. Disturbance of calcium homeostasis contributes to evolving tissue damage and energetic impairment following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Calcium-mediated activation of calcineurin results in production of tissue-damaging nitric oxide and free oxygen radicals. Inhibition of calcineurin induced by the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506) has been shown to reduce structural and functional damage after ischemia. The aims of the present study were to investigate time- and dose-dependent short-term antiedematous effects of tacrolimus following TBI.

Methods. A left temporoparietal contusion (controlled cortical impact injury [CCII]) was induced in 51 male Sprague—Dawley rats. Tacrolimus (1 or 3 mg/kg body weight) was administered by a single intraperitoneal injection at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, or 4 hours after CCII occurred. Control rats received physiological saline. Water contents of traumatized and nontraumatized hemispheres, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of mediators reflecting tissue damage (the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]—α, the excitotoxin glutamate, and the adenosine triphosphate—degradation product hypoxanthine), were determined 24 hours after trauma.

Although CSF levels of IL-6 and TNFα were completely suppressed by tacrolimus at all time points and at both concentrations, CSF levels of glutamate and hypoxanthine, as well as edema formation, were only marginally influenced. Significant reduction of cerebral water content was confined to nontraumatized hemispheres. In addition, the higher dose of tacrolimus failed to exert significant antiedematous effects on traumatized hemispheres.

Conclusions. Under the present study design, the potency of tacrolimus in reducing edema formation following CCII seems limited. However, its immunosuppressive effects could be of value in influencing the posttraumatic inflammatory response known to aggravate tissue damage.